Saturday, May 23, 2020

Love And Basketball An American Romantic Drama Film

Love and Basketball is an American romantic drama film that allows viewers to analyze the characteristics of gender identity and nonverbal communications between a love-hate relationship of two 11 year olds up until they are young adults. This film describes the joys, as well as hardships that come with young relationships. The two main characters are Monica and Quincy, who both have a passion for basketball in hopes to play for the NBA one day. The movie starts off with Monica (who is dressed like a tomboy with a baseball cap on her head) walking up to Quincy and his friends playing basketball, they mistakenly take Monica as boy and say that it is ok for her to play a game with them but as soon as she takes her cap off and realizing that†¦show more content†¦Quincy is determined by the need to better the accomplishments of his father, Zeke. As a result of them both being extremely talented in basketball, they develop this love-hate relationship for each other which lasts th roughout high school until the both get basketball scholarships USC, where they finally start dating. The love that Monica and Quincy have for each other demonstrates a storage style, which is defined as solid love found in friendships and family based on trust and caring. Storage love tends to develop slowly out of already existing friendships that share common interests, values, and life goals. Monica and Quincy developed a friendship relationship at 11 years olds because their common interest was basketball as well as future dreams of becoming professional basketball players. During their first year of college, their relationship is on good terms despite the fact that Quincy has bit of a problem controlling his nonverbal communication towards other girls on campus. Nonverbal communication is defined as behavior other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone. Quincy is the most popular guy at USC, all of the girls on campus know who his father is and that h e is likely going to the NBA, so they often flirt with him even in front of Monica. When she notices this, she raises concerns but he denies it saying that they are just fans but his nonverbal communication indicates otherwise. AfterShow MoreRelatedSpike Lee - Auteur Essay1069 Words   |  5 Pagesvision and style is expressed through films. The term auteur is originated in France and is French for author. There are different ways in which a director can express their vision in films and show who they are. There are many directors that are considered to be a auteur such as: Quentin Tarintino, Tim Burton, Kathryn Bigelow, Stanley Kubrick and Woody Allen. The director I have chosen as an auteur is Spike Lee. Lee’s Life: Spike Lee is an American film director who has directed, produced, writtenRead More Research on The Anime Invasion Essay4419 Words   |  18 Pagesteenage males, to enter mainstream American film entertainment, resulting in the backlash on violence, gender issues, and sexuality. I. Overview A.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Motivator B.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Definition of anime 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Examples of anime 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Anime and its consumers C.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Definition of manga 1. Popular American examples of manga a.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ranma  ½ b.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Akira c.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Fushigi Yugi: The Mysterious Play 2. Manga bestsellers D.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Anime appeal to Americans 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  American popular entertainment reference aRead MoreThroughout The Course, We Have Learned How Race And Discrimination1931 Words   |  8 Pagesof Latin America and look at the massacres and oppression of the people was to civilize the people of the communities that Europeans came across that were different form them. Then during the colonial period, a caste system was created for Latin Americans based off the shades of their skin. This reading speaks of the idea of Mestizaje, where everyone was a mix of decent. Not only was this idea used by the white oppressors it was used by the minority of people to convince themselves they were not inRead MoreAs The Years Go By The World Changes Extremely Quickly,1775 Words   |  8 Pageswon’t be bored. Sitcoms have been around for quite a time now, but rather a new idea that has come about is called reality TV. Society has made this type of entertainment very popular. Giving the viewer an impression that reality TV is relatable, drama filled and intriguing to watch. With all the viewers consuming hours of Reality shows, it’s pretty ironic that there isn’t much reality within the show itself. Why is it that these shows are getting the same if not more views than sitcoms? In chapterRead More African American Women in Early Film Essay2160 Words   |  9 PagesAfrican American Women in Early Film   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In early film many African American actresses portrayed roles as mammies, slaves, seductresses, and maids. These roles suppressed them not allowing them to show their true talents. Although they had to take on these degrading roles, they still performed with dignity, elegance, grace and style. They paved the way for many actresses to follow both blacks and whites. These women showed the film industry that they were more than slaves, mammies, and maidsRead MoreGoal Movie Review10720 Words   |  43 Pagesdeft, fast and brave footballer—the kind of talent that the glamorous English Premier League Club, Newcastle United, is hungry for. Now thrust into a foreign land where football is a religion and Newcastle’s St. James’ Park its cathedral, this young American must prove that he’s got the grit and the game to win a contract with one of the most prestigious football clubs in the world. Muddy fields, cold winds and crunching blows from teammates—not to mention personal woes, injuries, and the temptationsRead MoreSadie Hawkins Day and Valentine Grams18321 Words   |  74 Pagesshow a little love. â€Å"I bought a rose for my friend because she told me she wanted one,† said senior Leann Nguyen. However, a slight drop in sales this year compared to previous years was noted and may be a possible effect of our country’s recent economic struggles, observed Shian. â€Å"Last year, we sold 50 grams. But I don’t think the number of sales exceeded that of last year’s,† said Shian on Chinese Club’s sales status. Even then, the Valentine gram sales succeeded in bringing the love to PHHS whileRead MoreWall Street14268 Words   |  58 Pages1 Wall Street (Drama) ( 1987)  © 2000 by Raymond Weschler Major Characters Bud (Buddy ) Fox†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Charlie Sheen A young, smart and very motivated stock broker (seller) who dreams of making millions of dollars. Gordon Gekko†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Michael Douglas A very rich, ruthless and immoral stock trader and â€Å"corporate raider,† which is a person who buys and sells companies, often with horrible results for company workers. Darien Taylor†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Daryl Hannah A young and beautiful interiorRead MoreTEFL Assignment Answers23344 Words   |  94 Pagesmemorization exercises. It is essentially learning through vast amounts of repletion. If you do something repeatedly, you will acquire it. If you compare this concept to â€Å"muscle memory† in the sports arena, the principle mores more understandable. The basketball player shoots 100 freethrows everyday, so that the muscles â€Å"memorize† how to shoot the shot. The idea is the player doesn’t have to put much thought into the shot because it has just become second nature. Again, if time were an issue---I believeRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesa core module. Typically the audience would be students in Business Schools but could also be students in Departments of Sociology, Schools of Education and so on. The learning needs of these students is for a book that reflects the best of Anglo-American, European and other thinking on organization theory in a manner that shows that different sorts of theory are relevant and can be made interesting for an understanding of the organizational world. . Preface xv Distinctive features

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Interpreting Statistics and Political Polls

At any given time throughout a political campaign, the media may want to know what the public at large thinks about policies or candidates. One solution would be to ask everyone who they would vote for. This would be costly, time-consuming and infeasible. Another way to determine voter preference is to use a statistical sample. Rather than ask every voter to state his or her preference in candidates, polling research companies poll a relatively small number of people who their favorite candidate is. The members of the statistical sample help to determine the preferences of the entire population. There are good polls and not so good polls, so it is important to ask the following questions when reading any results. Who Was Polled? A candidate makes his or her appeal to the voters because the voters are the ones who cast ballots. Consider the following groups of people: AdultsRegistered votersLikely voters To discern the mood of the public any of these groups may be sampled. However, if the intent of the poll is to predict the winner of an election, the sample should be comprised of registered voters or likely voters. The political composition of the sample sometimes plays a role in interpreting poll results. A sample consisting entirely of registered Republicans would not be good if someone wanted to ask a question about the electorate at large. Since the electorate rarely breaks into 50% registered Republicans and 50% registered Democrats, even this type of sample may not be the best to use. When Was the Poll Conducted? Politics can be fast paced. Within a matter of days, an issue arises, alters the political landscape, then is forgotten by most when some new issue surfaces. What people were talking about on Monday sometimes seems to be a distant memory when Friday comes. News runs faster than ever, however, good polling takes the time to conduct. Major events can take several days to show up in poll results. The dates when a poll was conducted should be noted to determine if current events have had time to affect the numbers of the poll. What Methods Were Used? Suppose that Congress is considering a bill that deals with gun control. Read the following two scenarios and ask which is more likely to accurately determine the public sentiment. A blog asks its readers to click on a box to show their support of the bill. A total of 5000 participate and there is overwhelming rejection of the bill.A polling firm randomly calls 1000 registered voters and asks them about their support of the bill. The firm finds that their respondents are more or less evenly split for and against the bill. Although the first poll has more respondents, they are self-selected. It is likely that the people who would participate are those who have strong opinions. It could even be that the readers of the blog are very like-minded in their opinions (perhaps it is a blog about hunting). The second sample is random, and an independent party has selected the sample. Even though the first poll has a larger sample size, the second sample would be better. How Large Is the Sample? As the discussion above shows, a poll with a larger sample size is not necessarily the better poll. On the other hand, a sample size may be too small to state anything meaningful about public opinion. A random sample of 20 likely voters is too small to determine the direction that the entire U.S. population is leaning on an issue. But how large should the sample be? Associated with the size of the sample is the margin of error. The larger the sample size, the smaller the margin of error. Surprisingly, sample sizes as small as 1000 to 2000 are typically used for polls such as Presidential approval, whose margin of error is within a couple of percentage points. The margin of error could be made as small as desired by using a larger sample, however, this would require a higher cost to conduct the poll. Bringing It All Together The answers to the above questions should help in assessing the accuracy of results in political polls. Not all polls are created equally, and often details are buried in footnotes or omitted entirely in news articles that quote the poll. Thats why its important to be informed on how a poll was designed.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Nostalgia Free Essays

A Universal Feeling How many times have you reminisced on a certain memory and It almost felt Like you were there again? You could smell, see, and even taste that exact moment. These memories are always triggered by something, but you are not entirely sure what. You are overcome with a longing for that moment in time and the memory is so fond that you can’t help but feeling warm inside. We will write a custom essay sample on Nostalgia or any similar topic only for you Order Now Nostalgia is the sentimental longing felt when reminiscing on the past. It is not a feeling of melancholia but more of a bittersweet sentimentality for what once was. Nostalgia has been widely used to describe many notations but has Just recently been modified to describe a positive experience. The word nostalgia was first coined in the 17th century. The term was used to describe the medical conditions of Swiss mercenaries who longed to return home. Nostalgia soon became a name for a disease who’s symptoms included fainting, high fever, stomach pain, and even death. By the late 19th century nostalgia was discarded as a medical condition and recognized as a form of melancholia and a mentally repressive disorder. Now nostalgia has a positive meaning. It Is classified as the term to describe the exact feeling felt when thinking of past memories. Nostalgia does have a positive effect on an individual. The Oxford English Dictionary defines nostalgia as sentimental longing for a period of the past. Merriam- Webster Dictionary says is it pleasure and sadness that is caused by remembering something from the past and wishing that you could experience it again. The most common synonyms used when referring to nostalgia are sentimentality and yearning. The important things about these definitions are the positive tones they all have. Many people have experienced nostalgia at some point in their life, whether that be a nod memory from childhood or a strong feeling of homesickness. Many of these happy memories even trigger an euphoric feeling that takes you back to that certain place or time. These overall feelings provide a sense of comfort when life gets difficult. Young adults find that reminiscing on past memories has helped them smoothly transition into major life changes such as moving away from home. Nostalgia has been proven to counteract boredom, anxiety, and even loneliness. When things are especially difficult in different aspects of my life I find that I begin to feel lonely. Loneliness has always been a horrible feeling to cope with because there is nothing more helpless than feeling like you don’t have anyone. With that loneliness I start to question the continuity of my life. Why am I not friends with that person anymore? What am I supposed to be doing with my life? At this point in my life everything Is changing and there isn’t a stable thing that roots me to reality except for my memories. On the days that I feel anxiety or loneliness I always think of a certain memory that brings me back to a happier time. The memory Is always the same, but I can feel It better than I remember It. I remember the way the alarm feels a room window and noticing how the sun isn’t quite as high as it normally is. I remember the exact smell of the cinnamon candle that my mom starts burning every fall. This memory has no actual significance but somehow it gets rid of all the loneliness I feel and makes me feel continuity and optimism instead. Nostalgia itself does not involve any feelings of melancholia. The literal act of nostalgia is to recall a memory that is fond to you in some way. The purpose of remembering past memories is to relate them to now to provide the sense of nonentity that you need to maintain a comforting balance when life changes.. The experience of nostalgia is positive; the aftermath is not. Nostalgia is often confused with unpleasant feelings because of the longing that occurs when remembering a great experience from your past. But that longing is not an overall bad emotion it is just a reminder of all the positive things that once were. The term nostalgia has come a long way since it days of an actual medical condition to its description of a positive emotion. It is important to remember that nostalgia is not only Just a positive emotion but a positive experience. How to cite Nostalgia, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Ethical Shopping Myth or Reality Samples for Students †MyAssignmenthe

Question: Discuss about the Ethical Shopping Myth or Reality. Answer: Introduction A myth of the good shopper does morals make a difference but trendy buy conduct showed an active general periodical of customer promotion. Now the research, we inspected the particular circumstance besides nature of primary moral consumerism also concentrated youthful buyers to evoke their mentalities besides conduct towards ethical utilisation, corporate communal duty, besides corporate flightiness. Honourable utilisation, conservationism, party-political consumerism also social showcasing taken little speech traditional standard advertising writing as of now. Inquire about through researchers scrutinised the scope of lime consumerism famous the Australia, endeavouring to recognise then comprehend the requirements of moral purchasers besides contemplating the frail connection among what buyers supposed besides whatever they prepared in regards to capable utilisation[1]. A couple of scholastics expounded proceeding promoting morals also even fewer concentrated moral purchaser conduct . Modern the Australia, intended, for instance, the approach besides professional scene stayed additionally altogether different not at all restriction happening smoking openly puts, not at all charges intended aimed at plastic sacks before obligatory family unit reusing. Corporate reactions concentrated happening issues, designed, for example, sweatshop constructing the morals of promotion tobacco, infant recipe, besides sugary sustenance, before glamorising anorexia self-perceptions. Fashionable some conducts, ethical consumerism famous the Australia besides somewhere else trendy 2018 looks altogether different, however popular others, we confront a similar perplexing besides mischievous issues, besides apparently unfavourable difficulties to motivate shoppers besides advertisers towards act ethically. Reactions subsequently to the subjects brought awake trendy the article attractive regards to good utilisation besides showcasing morals, together inside scholarly community besides practice, might display awake woefully deficient[2]. Throughout the years researchers consume tried to recognize also characterize the moral procurer, scrutinized the real nature besides attendance of the idea, theorized scheduled the purposes behind hand the seemingly obstinate moral countryside conduct crevice, thought about the part of ethical utilization confidential standard promoting then, through technique of the nature also issues encompassing moral use consume widened then developed, progressively scrutinized the organization of the honest customer sensitive a neo-liberal economy that consumes expanded usage on her cancer. Literature review The examination of publicising morals created traditional light of what some would period the vanity of promoters who assumed that their exercises remained unquestionably toward the finest preferred standpoint of the buyer. Ideally, now the conversation system sponsors complete a sensible advantage, clients became the thing they needed also everybody remained happy. That simple idea takes stood tried the 1961s subsequently, by at first pardon held unique cumbersome voices, for instance, Vance Packard besides Ralph Nader disapproving the control inconsistency that was among promoters also buyers[3]. Sheth in 1989 raise that till the 1961s sponsors whichever demonstrated absence of engagement hip issues connected toward their communal promises otherwise purposefully neglected them. Nevertheless, the excellent shape of purchaser activists modern the midst of that decade helped to enable an additional dominant position through a couple of customers besides the inadequacies of promoting e vents. Today here stands another prearranged strike from healthy organised campaigners supplicants such as test get-togethers, for instance, lime concord, networks of the Ground before the Australia customers implication. Kotler in year 1973 remained a prominent director of the social showcasing development, who apparent this anything buyers' craving cannot actually be beneficially used for them tobacco, besides in spite of the fact that advertisers may make a cheerful client for the time being, over the long haul both purchaser and society may endure as an immediate consequence of the sponsor's activities now fulfilling the customer[4]. Traditionally advanced existences a scope of researchers takes inspected different parts of social duty besides societal advertising. Robin likewise Reidenbach, 1988 Hunt additionally Chonko, 1985 Laczniak additionally Murphy, 1994 Murphy 1999 Garrett, 1988 Smith 1996 Hunt also Vitale, 1995. Naturally, numerous advertisers reflect community obligati on plus societal showcasing to remain a critical subject inside the promoting arena, yet by what means prepares the actual purchaser to see these materials[5]. Somewhat than staying vanquished using the continued by nonappearance of answers towards the numerous request which last being model through the tests of community obligation, here remain various sponsors who hope toward setting up tasteful real rules then sharpen besides scramble that confidential the business Vitale, 1993Smith, 1996 also Laczniak, 1994 Hunt. Sanctioning takes an impact in raising buyer goals of publicising behaviour, besides control has furthermore moved us from the stipulation emptor location of the 1961s toward an additional socially trustworthy time familiar advancing Smith, 1996. Here remain cyphers that morals stand not ever over pondering happening the limits of publicizing action. Here stand cyphers that morals remain nope longer languishing happening the fringes of marketing activity. Methodology Industrialist consumerism stands based happening the proliferation of yearning this the arrangement of generation be able always completely to fulfil Graaf 2015 Hamilton also Dennis, 2006. Furthermore, significant the financial circle, a worry used for others stays not ever characteristic up till currently transgressively to the framework. Subsequently, below states of contemporary allowed enterprise, a fleabag between one's moral directions and goals working in the social and social circle represented by undistorted correspondence in the optimistic Habermasian sense outside the financial framework, and the differentiating flippancy of the commercial canter administered through advertising esteems then messages then money connected trade confidential the monetary framework, ought to stand distinct by method of healthy by way of not available of the ordinary. As per advertisers, indeed, we must approach ethical utilisation claims through alert attractive bright of the detail that such a topic position presents a gross inconsistency[6]. By way of opposite to confusing showcasing besides purchaser specialists, lengthways these lines, this fleabag must promise them that belongings remain lately the way they must to remain. Toward respect, the fleabag by way of a pathology of kinds requires buyer analysts toward setting together a shared characteristic of moral behaviours crosswise ended primary leadership settings then a limit of consumers toward containing their craving. Neither of these conditions stays natural near private enterprise then liable to emerge on some rate not happening a mass scale. Popular this manner, the ethical utilization crevice stands best comprehended as per a traditional of an idealistic showcasing belief system besides through nope establishment previous a positivistic hallucination of rudimentary reality[7]. The mental idea of affirmation predisposition gives hypothetical besides exact support to the possibility that the showcasing belief system would be relied upon to hold influence here. We draw on a psychoanalytical refinement between the genuine and reality to answer this question. Truth can't exist without the dream. This position ought to not toward remain confused for postmodern naivety that rejects the likelihood of a target reality confidential besides out. The traditional Lacanian hypothesis here remains a safe, thus far the subject not once approaches belongings the method they stay in the regular day near day existence. Popular this beginning, we performance confidential the casing of a constituted reality before putting modern an unexpected method, we remain always implanted in the belief system and anything we noise the certainty remains best comprehended by way of a dream that draws upon ideological intervention, bias, then oblivious yearning. Trendy the occasion that we admit this depiction of reality equally a type of imagination, the question whether the ethical utilization crevice remains genuine, before not, stands rendered insignificant. Conversely, what is left significant stands the mode the ideological figure of the crack remains contributed by the moral advertiser's oblivious yearning also how the merchant builds that number towards determining an inconsistency. The disagreement toward remain settled here remains that of a private enterprise predicated happening damaging consumerism that requires good consumerism to refute his individual particular danger. We know how to observe nowadays why the good reaction towards a promoting researcher underwriting the right customer stands not then rather such a shopper prepares not exist trendy light of the datum that inside the typical universe of this researcher, besides concerned ethical advertisers, the moral purchaser occurs. Before maybe, a correct reaction towards an endorser of the ethical consumer remains to recommend that thoughts of good utilisation partake nothing towards prepare thru an ethical consumer, too the ideo logical figure of the right client is essentially an endeavour toward joining awake the irregularities of the common philosophical framework. Discussion and analysis The prospect of real customers takes created finished the span of the previous twenty-five otherwise extra centuries after a prohibitive focus scheduled general issues near a thought that trips matters of still, little voice extra thoroughly, just to return to hers green ancestries thru the present stresses finished overall natural modification. Traditional the middle of this regular period we take realised a creating primary contention near the essentialness of decent consumerism besides, particularly, the impression that large-scale strategies partake arranged purchaser care than spending[8]. Star-brilliant exercises, intended for case, broaden bloodshot a movement encouraged trendy 2007, started and Australia legislator, in which huge brands, for instance, Gap and sub stamp some of their clothes in the red name also stretch the profits to the protects of a quick trap arranged marvellous associations' communal duties in gathering, retailing, and publicizing then show toward satisfy ing an enormous open longing used for useful belongings. Such unmistakable activities covered the reasonability and obliged bring up of things per good before social estimations, leaving many association ones a player attractive the perplexing client essential authority handle and a deficient opinion get ready. Just like this would we take the capacity near make efficient besides critical approaches that attract the conceivably social purchaser? This takes different implications, which we resolve discuss, besides give supporting affirmation to, altogether through the book[9]. Towards instigate by, the idea we stand maintaining of fixes not have a genuine decent before right portion. Through this, we infer that reasons around the method that individuals speak toward non-viable shares of things familiar their assessment of the regard then satisfaction they become from usage, hitherto this the great before right portions of this stand fair-minded. Toward the time's end, the countless o therwise decent regard shares of the article remain controlled through individuals then their general population besides not through some greater master[10]. Aimed at an instance, notwithstanding the method this we might eventually assume that monkey work before animal testing stands frightful, we don't advance some expression around this famous the depiction of morals. Our stress remains whether the individual brands such a position then whether this woman carries scheduled according toward that position once there stays a cost intended for doing all belongings considered. Recommendation section Any wander similar this one takes massive attempts finished an increased period span. This wander started trendy by what canister is stand gotten by way of a self-assertive event we held incorporated hooked on an outside wander beside a vital question Rose asked not taking the correct reaction on the time then existence astonished that here stood nothing pushing to an answer we initiated what ended awake transforming hooked on a semi careful examination of this question. None of us knew by the time that, following ten years, we would by present stand working out the fitting reaction. Nope, one hip the gathering would depict him or else herself as per being required voguish research scheduled business ethics otherwise accessible an academic region hip which single would expect that question resolve stand of interest. Moral clients stands set up by means of a business examiner through a touch of mind science. Pat Auger stays set up trendy organization. Honourable buyers hold a client l ead was exhibiting analyst. The stylish first case, what we apply as per an emotional impact intended for this topic close through our various accomplices holds a perspective that stays untainted via an institutionalising slant. The situation is our stress just before prepare whatever him takes, not just before change her. This book stands not a supporter's affirmation, besides fashionable expecting toward pass scheduled clarity towards an irritable point. We don't retain the importance since securing a weighty portion of the subjects that we stand investigating, nor prepare that patrons intended for these topics take a support now propelling them by way of a trademark strategy of social, standard, and then first political contention then change. Regardless, we remain working below the conviction that toward grasp the soreness's around personal social usage direct beside to attempt towards prepare like this by methods for the usage of different methodologies favourite dissimilar ter ritories is primary to light up that reasonable exchange. The situation remains our part to be self-sufficient onlookers and go between. References Carrigan, Marylyn, and Ahmad Attalla. 2001. "Do Ethics Matter In Purchase Behaviour?".The Myth Of The Ethical Consumer18 (7). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/243461925_The_myth_of_the_ethical_consumer_-_Do_ethics_matter_in_purchase_behaviour. Carrington, Michal Jemma, Detlev Zwick, and Benjamin Neville. 2016. "The Ideology Of The Ethical Consumption Gap".Marketing Theory16 (1). https://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_451526_en.pdf. Carrington, Michal, Ben Neville, and Gregory Whitwell. 2009. "Ethical Intentions, Unethical Shopping Baskets".Understanding The Intentions-Behaviour Gap Of Ethically-Minded Consumers. https://www.duplication.net.au/ANZMAC09/papers/ANZMAC2009-082.pdf. Devinney, Timothy. 2017. "Myth Of The Ethical Consumer". https://www.academia.edu/1678320/Myth_of_the_Ethical_Consumer_Overview_Presentation_. Devinney, Timothy m., Pat Auger, and Giana m. Eckhardt. 2010. "The Myth Of The Ethical Consumer". https://plataforma.responsable.net/sites/default/files/myth_ethical_consumer.pdf. "Ethical Consumption As An Identity Project". 2009.A Narrative Approach To Finnish Ethical Consumers Identity Construction. https://epub.lib.aalto.fi/en/ethesis/pdf/12188/hse_ethesis_12188.pdf. Sharma, Arun, Walfried Lassar, and Banwari Mittal. 1995. "Measuring Customer-Based Brand Equity".Journal Of Consumer Marketing12 (4). https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/07363769510095270. "The Appeal And Reality Of Ethical Consumerism". 2017. https://assets.cambridge.org/97805217/66944/excerpt/9780521766944_excerpt.pdf. "The Myth Of The Ethical Consumer - Do Ethics Matter In Purchase Behaviour?". 2012.Journal Of Consumer Marketing. https://econ.au.dk/fileadmin/Economics_Business/Currently/Events/PhDFinance/Kauttu_The_myth_of_the_ethical_consumer_-_do_ethics_matter_in_purchase_behaviour.pdf. Tsalikis, John, and David J. Fritzsche. 1989. "A Literature Review With A Focus On Marketing Ethics".Business Ethics8 (9). https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00384207.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Tips to Improve Your Essay free essay sample

Have a look at the comments. What patterns keep repeating themselves? What things are your existing strengths? What do you really need to improve? 3. Familiarize yourself with the course aims. Different courses can have very different aims and positions in relation to the same topic. To make sure that you are on track, look again at the aims of the ours. These should be written down somewhere, usually in the course handbook or perhaps in online descriptions of the course. Re-reading the aims of the course will help to centre you. 4.Consider creating your own question. On some courses tutors may require you to devise your own question, or offer you the option of doing so. If you the question set does not motivate you, then you should explore the option. It is a mixed blessing: good because you might be able to write about your passion, and because you will be taking yourself out of competition with other students who are all answering the main question (markers tend to get fussier when they see a lot of answers to the same thing). We will write a custom essay sample on Tips to Improve Your Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page On the other hand, it comes fraught with pitfalls.For example creating an obvious or speculative answer. If you do decide to go down this route, always clear the question with the tutor before you start writing. A productive question has the following characteristics: ; Is focused and specific. ; Cannot be answered with an obvious yes or no response. Include a quotation as a starting point. ; Can ; Contributes to a wider academic theory or research concern (may be through challenging testing, unpacking or applying). Does not concern a topic so broad that it leads to pure speculation. Encourages different viewpoints to be put alongside each other. ; Is meaningful: people can see why it matters. ; Ideally creates surprise or covers new ground. Words that might inspire you: analyses, assess, assumptions, causes, compare, consequences, contrast, differences, discuss, evaluate, implications, similarities, what, why. 5. Narrow down the scope of a general question. Theres an old saying that goes Give someone enough rope and they will hang themselves. If you think of trying to read something that says a little bout a lot, it wont have much flow or insight.In general, students do better on more narrowly defined questions, because saying a lot about a little shows that you have a depth Of understanding. So if the title Of the question seems a bit general to you, ask your tutor about the possibility of redefining the scope of study. Here is an example. If the title says, Discuss the representation of women in horror movies, you could say in your introduction, Women are represented in different ways in horror films and it would be too much to try and discuss every sub-genre in detail. This essay will focus on the presentation of women in slashes movies, because that particular topic has attracted the most critical attention The formula here is to show in passing that you know about the whole area, but then to say that it would be better to discuss one area, either because it exemplifies the concerns of the main question or because it addresses it in a particularly interesting way. You could phrase this by saying, Rather than addressing a topic with such a broad scope, the discussion that follows will focus on N 6. Listen out for specific advice from the tutor.Sometimes tutors have a very specific slant on the essay that they want you o produce. Perhaps they are keen that you follow the particular codes and conventions of a certain school of thought. Rather than putting off starting the essay, it is better instead immediately to ask the tutor for some grounding advice. Most will be keen to mention particular quirks and pitfalls to you. My point here is that this eBook is about general academic essay writing. You are advised to modify and tailor this advice to the specific circumstances of your course, tutor and assessment.Most tutors will make technical specifications about a piece of work. For example: double-spaced paragraphs, justified to he left margin, written in 12 point font on paper with margins of at least CM. Some tutors may also offer help in reading through a draft of your work. If your tutor is willing to do this would advise you to go to see them in person (emails with drafts attached can seem a bit impolite) and do as much you can to finish the essay. Otherwise, you will be wasting everyones time since you are asking him or her to say things that are Obvious to both Of you. DEVELOPMENT ADVICE 7.Start as early as possible. One of the biggest problems is that students do too little too late. Weve all dinettes that caffeine-fuelled frenzy of pressured intellectual creativity just before an essay is due in. Rarely does it actually work well. Although it is human nature, and working right up to deadlines motivates people, it also has major problems: ; Bottlenecks mean a scarcity of resources (harassed tutors, libraries plundered of material, over-stretched computer facilities). People compete with themselves to see if they can do a good job. They have precious little time to develop or review their work. Students feel stressed because they are not in control of their work life. ; Some work needlessly owes marks for lateness. Imagine yourself as a lawyer paid to fight a major jury case. Would you leave all your homework to the night before? If you were a soccer hero would you not bother training until the night before each match? This method makes no sense. Its much better to have a get it done immediately/ mentality. The benefits of this attitude are that: ; You feel more in control of your workload. ; You have proper time to review your own work. You can deal with later problems as they come up. ; You can hand your work in early and go to the movies while everyone else gets stressed out. Thats really beating the system. You have to remember that essay deadlines are usually the very last time that work can be handed in, not the only time. Be like Elvis and start taking care of business; just dont eat too many doughnuts while youre doing it 8. Answer only the exact question set. Look very carefully at the working of the question set. Here is an example: Assess criticisms of the thesis that the recent Iraq War was really about oil. This answer does not ask you to state the thesis that the war was about oil (although you should do that in your introduction), nor does it ask you to rely re-state criticisms of the thesis. It asks you, in fact, to assess those criticisms; in other words, to say what was good and bad about each criticism. If you really want to answer a question properly, kick up key words like evaluate, analyses or contrast in its title. These words have very specific meanings. 9. Leave time to review your work. If you plan to finish your essay a couple of weeks ahead of time, something magical will happen.Walk away from the completed piece for a week, and when you come back and read it again all the flaws that you never saw at the time will jump right out and beg to be corrected. The best part is that you still have time to do it! 10. Assess and redraft your essay. When you come to looking at your draft, here is a way to get to the bottom of whether it has a good structure. Print out a copy of the essay leaving a broad left hand margin. As you read it through write a sentence next to each paragraph summarizing what it means. Next take a new sheet of paper and make a flow chart from all of the summary sentences.This will give you a map or outline of your essay that will allow you to judge its development and flow. You can now start to re-arrange, transform, insert or remove arcographs to improve the development of the piece as a whole. Another tip here is that if you are short of the word count, you can add each summary sentence to the front of its paragraph, if appropriate, to increase the clarity. Finally, you may have to redraft your work several times until you get it right. Very few people can write anything of real substance with clarity first time round. Almost all top writers take several drafts to fully expound and arrange their ideas.Why should you be any different? 11 . Focus on staying within the word limit. It is a tragedy when students with great work are penalized for going over Engel. Usually a few words (up to about 10%) will not make much difference, but going over length any further indicates an unrestrained sloppiness and inability to stick to the rules stated. There is an art to being able to summarize some sections and leave detail in others, to create a result that leads the reader through the issues boldly and slowly, so that at the end they feel satisfied and do not want more.You may wish to apportion word limits to the individual points that you are developing. Find that a bit obsessive, but do it if it works for you. RESEARCH TIPS 12. Go beyond lecture material. One of the biggest mistakes people make at university is dragging their old models of learning along with them. Rather than spoon-feed the truth for you to regurgitate, lecturers usually aim to give you a few starting points to guide you in your own independent research, learning and thinking on a topic. You display progress in that by showing that you have done your own reading and thinking around the Issues. 3. Focus on the best academic sources. Research is a big part of doing a strong essay. This part is all about effort and quality control. The more you look, the more you will find. Rather than rousing down the library (an approach which often throws up old or marginal sources), the best thing to do is to take things in three steps: Foundational learning: begin with introductory material, particularly recent textbooks and subject dictionaries. The online encyclopedia wisped is one such starting point and can be found here: http://w. Iv. wisped. Rug/ The problem with wisped, though, is that it is not really an academic source since anyone can write or alter an entry. Try to find online resources in your discipline, so that you can re-search them when starting different essays. Take some rough notes from these starting sources to get grounded in your subject, but do not use the sources in your final essay as it will mark you out as a total beginner rather than an emerging expert. ; Hunting for sources: once you have acquired a basic familiarity with the topic, cast your net a lot wider, and keep casting it.Only look for academic sources (those from university presses or from other publishers like Sage or Rutledge who feature writers from universities). Such sources can include journal articles, reports, books or book chapters and scholarly monographs. At this stage, ether than doing more reading you should simply keep searching for bibliographic references to academic pieces are either current (within the last five to ten years) or classic (the relevant pieces by authors that everybody talks about). Set a goal of finding, say, twenty books, book chapters and articles that are the most relevant to your title.Maximizing your options should be the goal at this stage. Remember to keep within or close to your discipline at this stage, since different disciplines can come at the same topic via very different angles. Use your library catalogue. If your university obscurities to electronic search engines like BIBS, CLC First Search or ASTOR, then use those. Some free search engines you might also try: scholar. Google. Com/ o http:/ o http://whiffletrees. Com/ rather a general source which includes non-academic material. O http://van. Www. Eggs. Du/ . This school has online articles by some famous social thinkers. ; Final reading: once you have found the best sources, begin to read them, taking notes and focusing on the most relevant sections. 14. Focus on printed sources. Try and use sources that you can cite down to the exact page number. Often this will mean going to printed copies of things. If your bibliography consists of predominantly internet sources, even if they are all good ones, the marker will probably surmise that you are a bit lazy and convenience orientated.Some sections of academia are slow to change; I think there is still a bias towards printed sources among examiners and it would be as well to be aware of it. 15. Find good examples. What makes a good example? Apart from it being correctly cited, would say that it needs to be accurate (factual), important (relevant), reliable (representative) and strong (proving the point). How much detail you include ACH time is a matter for your own evaluation. Maybe re-reading a later draft will help you decide if you have conveyed it effectively.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Survival Essays - Book Of Genesis, Lech-Lecha, Vayeira, Abraham

Survival Essays - Book Of Genesis, Lech-Lecha, Vayeira, Abraham Survival Finding one?s place in society is a major dilemma many people face every day. Once people find their place in society they understand who they are, what is expected by them and what their roles are. Once a person has found their place in society they understand their life and which direction it is going. The main characters are portrayed as two different individuals with very different lives who have only one thing in common- their inability to find their proper place in society. Brian Moore, and Margaret Laurence?s concern for the plight of the individual and their position in society is clearly self-evident in their novels The Luck of Ginger Coffey and The Stone Angel . The main characters Ginger Coffey and Hagar Shipley both struggle to survive with dignity even though their overwhelming pride often obscures reality. Throughout the novel it becomes evident that both Ginger Coffey and Hagar Shipley?s overwhelming sense of pride obscures their reality and therefore causing problems for them. Coffey the main character in Brian Moore?s novel The Luck of Ginger Coffey is portrayed as a comic hero who has endless limitations that he does not see. Ginger Coffey believes he is his own man, which is why he leaves his homeland Ireland and moves to Canada . Coffey believes Ireland would not allow him to become the person he thought he could be, " What was his aim in life ? Well...he supposed it was to be his own master, to provide for Vera and Paulie, to...to what ?...To make something of himself, he supposed." (Moore, pg.21) Coffey?s values do not seem to be unrealistic or selfish in themselves, but because he sets unobtainable and unrealistic goals he encounters numerous failures. Coffey cannot content himself with a simple job and provide for his family in this way; he wants to become someon! e important, and achieve personal status. Not realizing that these very ideas bind him to a life of repetitive failures. Because of his pride Coffey sees himself not as the middle aged man that he is, but as an attractive young boy out for new adventures. "Now in his prime, he considered himself a fine big fellow with a soldierly straightness to him, his red hair thick as ever and a fine mustache to boot.." (Moore, pg. 58) Coffey does not seem to be aware of reality around him, nor of how others see him. "Look at this one with his tiny green hat, short bulky coat and suede boots. A man that age should know better than to dress as a college boy."(Moore, pg. 23) Although others see him as he is, a middle aged man trying to act like a teenager, Coffey is blinded by pride and not aware of who he really is. All he knows is that he wants to make something of himself. But because of the false image he has of himself, he encounters endless frustrations in his search for work. ! He strives always for the most demanding jobs ; although he is not qualified in any way to fill any of the positions he applies for. Yet, in the end, things do not improve as Coffey thought they would , once he left Ireland. Coffey continues to be the same childish boy full of hopes and dreams unable to find his place within society. Margaret Laurence?s heroine in a way faces the same dilemma that Coffey does. Hagar Shipley in The Stone Angel is a ninety year old woman, desperately trying to live out her last days in some sort of dignity . But Hagar like Coffey suffers, for it is because of her pride, that she is unable to see the real world around her, or try to understand it. Hagar sees herself as a young woman, trapped in an old body. Thus she tries endlessly with many frustrations to do things for herself, and always fails. Hagar becomes resentful, moody, childish and angry when her son Marvin or her daughter-in-law try to help her. Hagar feels that they are trying to take her pride away, the one thing Hagar could not face up to, "I always swore I?d never be a burden-" (Laurence, pg.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Marilyn Monroe by Barbara Leaming Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Marilyn Monroe by Barbara Leaming - Essay Example In some ways the book tells a story that is very familiar. Thus Marilyn Monroe is portrayed as an abused, confused girl from an orphanage with an insane mother who lives in an asylum. By a remarkable mixture of luck, co-incidence and the personal magnetism that the young girl possessed Marilyn Monroe rises to become the most successful movie star of her time. Subsequently she falls and eventually dies, the victim of drug abuse, self-hatred and a destructive life-style that left her few options. Beyond this familiar characterization, Leaming suggests that Marilyn Monroe was in fact far more in control of her life than most biographers have given her due. Thus her rise to fame and subsequent crash to probably suicide was more within Monroe's own hands than people appreciated at the time or have seen ever since. Leaming suggests that Monroe was in fact highly ambitious and knew how to construct an apparently irresistible persona that would both fascinate and intrigue the public. From her rendition of "Happy Birthday" for President John F Kennedy to her attempts at choosing exactly the right movie at the right time and even to her somewhat bizarre choices of husbands including the cerebral playwright Arthur Miller, Leaming argues that Monroe was far more in control of her life than appeared from the outside. This control is especially seen in the long and complex negotiations with movie studies that are documented throughout the book. The fact that Monroe had a first-class business mind beyond the "dumb blonde" persona that she often portrayed has seldom been considered. It is, indeed, a fact about many Hollywood stars that is often ignored or downplayed. Leaming does not explore the apparent contradiction between this competitive, manipulative Monroe and the out-of-control drug addict who could not stand the natural process of aging and the loss of looks. This is a pity, as the two sides of Monroe sit uneasily besides one another without being really reconciled. Perhaps Leaming is suggesting that they cannot be explained: they merely exist. This portrayal of Marilyn Monroe sits somewhat uneasily with the overall pessimistic tone of the book as the star's life is seen as on a downward spiral from birth, despite the wealth and fame that she eventually achieved. If Monroe was in control of her life, she apparently sought to destroy herself within Leaming's portrayal. The final moments of her life are shown to be a mixture of accident and deliberation. According to Leaming, Marilyn Monroe may have taken her final overdose because her psychiatrist was going out to dinner and would not talk to her until the next day. Monroe felt abandoned and thus killed herself. To conclude, Leaming brings a new perspective and new material to one of the most studied and written about figures in American cultural history. She portrays the culture that Monroe lived within in a provocative manner, showing that the iconic playwright (and Monroe's one-time husband) was involved in a bizarre rivalry with every other male in her life. She shows that Monroe tried to control her life in a manner that has seldom been explored, but that this attempt was ultimately doomed because of an insane streak that Monroe probably inherited from her mother. Similar to many stars of her time, Marilyn Monroe was doomed to a relatively young, pathetic death through a drug overdose. But paradoxically, it was this death that assured her

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

How Managers Support the Company's Goals Assignment

How Managers Support the Company's Goals - Assignment Example Caleta CO’s biggest strength lies in the innovation of products which has expanded its market share and made them global leaders in the business. The company has managed to hire the best talent pool in the country by providing them with the best compensation in the industry and above industry standard benefits. John believes in recruiting the best, paying them the best, and keeping them satisfied with other benefits in the best way possible. He was not wrong, as this talent pool has led to the success of the company through their innovation. However, John is now faced with the challenge of a reduction in employee costs and ensure better working conditions in Mexico and Vietnam.   John sits down to list the following:- To make a list of all managers who have spearheaded teams to break into new markets and expand the range of RFID products which has increased the turnover of the company. John will present this to the board to convince that he has hired the right talent and the right talent requires monetary motivation to innovate.- Aware that the innovation of products has led to the growth of the company John has decided to pool the innovative team together and the compensation and benefits program for this team will remain unchanged.- On the other hand, reductions will be made in the current size of the HR department. Tracking their performances through feedback forms from the employees. The 17 specialists who test and recruit managers will be tracked against the performance of the recruits to ensure the right candidate is receiving the right compensation.- Most importantly to rework the current organizational structure to see excesses to the right size.- HR associates to be given additional responsibility to expose managers to the new HRIS system with timelines to complete and convince the managers to use them. This will lead to a reduction in HR resources and lower cost.- The best compensation in the industry comes with the best performance standards . Weed out the non-performing 10% in the company.- To recruit HR associates in Mexico and Vietnam to ensure a personal touch which also saves cost, as traveling from the US and the cost of hiring an HR associate in the US is 10 times higher. Ensure that the HR associate in that country is in charge of maintaining safety and health standards prevalent in that country. OR to explore HR outsourcing companies to take care of the HR management in Vietnam and Mexico if feasible and turn out to be a huge cost saving for the Corporation.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Multivariate Multilevel Modeling

Multivariate Multilevel Modeling Literature Review This chapter tying up the various similar studies related to modeling responses multivariately in a multilevel frame work. As a start, this chapter begins by laying out the recent history of univariate techniques for analyzing categorical data in a multilevel context. Then it gradually presents the literature available on fitting multivariate multilevel models for categorical and continuous data. More over this chapter reviews the evidence for imputing missing values for partially observed multivariate multilevel data sets. The Nature of Multivariate Multilevel models A multivariate multilevel model can be considered as a collection of multiple dependent variables in a hierarchical nature. Though the multivariate analysis increases the complexity in a multilevel context, it is an essential tool which facilitates to carry out a single test of the joint effects of some explanatory variables on several dependent variables (Snijders Bosker (2000). These models have the power of increasing the construct validity of the analysis for complex concepts in the real world. Consider a study on school effectiveness which can be measured on three different output variables math achievement, reading proficiency and well-being at school. These data are collected on students those who are clustered within schools by implying a hierarchical nature. Although it is certainly possible to handle three outcomes separately, it is unable to show the overall picture about school effectiveness. Therefore multivariate analysis would be more preferable in these types of scen arios since it has the capability of decreasing the type 1 error and increasing the statistical power (Maeyer, Rymenans, Petegem and Bergh) (Draft). Hierarchical natures of multivariate models are not like as the univariate response models. Let us focus on above example; it implies a two level multivariate model. But in reality it has three levels. In this case, the measurements are the level 1 units, the students the level 2 units and the schools the level three units. Importance of Multivariate Multilevel Modeling Multivariate multilevel data structures may itself present a greater complexity as it leads to focus the multilevel effects together with the multivariate context. Therefore the traditional statistical techniques would fail to face these kinds of areas since it can decrease the statistical efficiency by producing overestimated standard errors. On the other hand violation of independence assumption may cause to under estimate the standard errors of regression coefficients. Therefore multivariate multilevel approaches play an important role to get rid of these kinds of situations by allowing variation at different levels to be estimated. Furthermore Goldstein (1999) has shown that clustering provides accurate standard errors, confidence intervals and significance tests. Some amount of articles have been published on multilevel modeling based on a single response context. Multivariate multilevel concept comes into the field of statistics during the past few years. When people want to identify the effect of set of explanatory variables on a set of dependent variables and by considering these effects separately on response variables, then if it shows a considerable difference among those effects then it can be handled only by means of a multivariate analysis (Snijders Bosker, 2000). Software for Multivariate Multilevel Modeling In the past decades, due to the unavailability of the software for fitting multivariate multilevel data some researchers tend to use manual methods such as EM Algorithm (Kang et al., 1991). As a result of developing the technical environment, the software such as STATA, SAS and S plus are emerged in to the Statistical field by providing facilitates to handle the multilevel data. But none of those packages have a capability of fitting multivariate multilevel data. However there is evidence in the literature that nonlinear multivariate multilevel model can be fitted using packages such as GLLAMM (Rabe-Hesketh, Pickles and Skrondal, 2001) and aML (Lillard and Panis, 2000). But it was not flexible to handle this software. Therefore MlwiN software which has become the under development since late 1980’s was modified at the University of Bristol in UK in order to fulfill that requirement. However, the use of MlwiN for fitting multivariate multilevel models has been challenged by Goldstein, Carpenter and Browne (2014) who concluded that MlwiN was useful if only when fitting the model without imputing for the missing values. However REALCOM software was then came into the field of Statistics and provided the flexibility to impute the missing values in the MLwiN environment. MLwiN is a modified version of DOS MLn program which uses a command driven interface. MLwiN provides flexibility to fitting very large and complex models using both frequentist and Bayesian estimation along with the missing value imputation in a user friendly interface. Some particular advanced features which are not available in the other packages are included in this software. Univariate Multilevel Modeling vs. Multivariate Multilevel Modeling In general, data are often collected on multiple correlated outcomes. One major theoretical issue that has dominated the field for many years is modeling the association between risk factors and each outcome in a separate model. It may cause to statistically inefficient since it ignores outcome correlations and common predictor effects (Oman, Kamal and Ambler) (unpublished) Therefore most of the researches tend to include all related outcomes in a single regression model within a multivariate outcome framework rather than univariate. Recently investigators have examined the comparison between Univariate and Multivariate outcomes and they have proven that Multivariate models would be preferable than several univariate models. According to the Griffiths, Brown and Smith (2004), they conducted a study to compare univariate and multivariate multilevel models for repeated measures of use of antenatal care in Uttar Pradesh, India. In here, they examined many factors which may have a relationship to the mother’s decision to use ante-natal care services for a particular pregnancy. For that they compared Univariate multilevel logistic regression model vs. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression model. However as a result of fitting univariate models, model assumptions became violated and couldn’t get stable parameter estimates. Therefore they preferred the multivariate context rather than the univariate context after performing the analysis. Generalized Cochran Mantel Haenzel Tests for Checking Association of Multilevel Categorical Data. The history of arising the concepts related to Generalized Cochran Mantel Haenzel was streaming to the late 1950’s. Cochran (1958), one of a great Statistician has firstly introduced a test to identify the independence of multiple 2 Ãâ€" 2 tables by extending the general chi-square test for independence of a single 2-way table. In here, the each table consists of one or two additional variables for higher levels to detect the multilevel nature. The test statistic is based on the row totals of each table. The assumption behind is that the cell counts have binomial distribution. As an extension to Cochran’s work, Mantel and Haenzel (1959) extended the Cochran’s test statistic for both row and column totals by assuming the cell counts of each table follows a hypergeommetric distribution. Since Cochran Mantel Hanzel (CMH) statistic has a major limitation on binary data, Landis et al (1978) generalized this test into handle more than two levels. However there is a major drawback of the Generalized Cochran Mantel Haenzel (GCMH) test. This test was unable to handle clustered correlated categorical data. Liang (1985) was proposed a test statistic for get rid of this problem. However that test statistic itself had major problems and it was fail to use. As development of the statistics field, a need for a test statistic capable of handling correlated data and variables with higher levels arouse. Zhang and Boos (1995) coming in to the field and introduced three test statistics TEL TP and TU as a solution to the above problems. However among these three test statistics TP and TU are preferred to TEL since these two use the individual subjects as the primary sampling units while TEL use the strata as the primary sampling unit (De Silva and Sooriyarachchi, 2012). Furthermore, by a simulation study TP shows better performance than TE by maintaining its error values even when the strata are small and it uses the pooled estimators for variance. Therefore it provides a guideline to select TP as the most suitable statistic to perform this study. De Silva and Sooriyarachchi (2012) developed a R program to carry out this test. Missing Value Imputation in Multivariate Multilevel Framework The problem of having missing values is often arising in real world datasets. However it contains little or no information about the missing data mechanism (MDM). Therefore modeling incomplete data is a very difficult task and may provide bias results. Therefore this major problem address to a need of a proper mechanism to check the missingness. As a solution to that, Rubin (1976) presented three possible ways of arising misingness. These are classified as Missing At Random (MAR), Missing Completely At Random (MCAR) and Missing Not At Random (MNAR). According to the Sterne et. Al (2009), missing value imputation is necessary under the assumption of missing at random. However, it can also be done under the case missing complete at random. On nowadays most statistical packages have the capability of identifying the type of missingness. After identifying the type of missingness, the missing value imputation comes into the field and it requires a statistical package to perform this. Since the missing value imputation in a hierarchical nature is little bit more advanced and it cannot be done using usual statistical packages such as SPSS, SAS and R etc. Therefore Carpenter et. al (2009), developed the REALCOM software to perform this task. However latter version of REALCOM was not deal with multilevel data in a multivariate context. Therefore the macros related to perform this task was recently developed by the Bristol University team in order to facilitate under this case. Estimation Procedure The estimation procedures for multilevel modeling are starting late 1980’s. However For parameter estimation using Maximum Likelihood Method, an iterative procedure called EM algorithm was used by early statisticians (Raudenbush, Rowan and Kang, 1991). Later on the program HLM was developed to perform this algorithm. The most operational procedures for estimating multivariate multilevel models in the presence of Normal responses are Iterative Generalized Least Squares (IGLS), Reweighted IGLS (RIGLS) and Marginal Quasi Likelihood (MQL) while for discrete responses are MQL and Penalized Quasi Likelihood (PQL). According to Rasbash, Steele, Browne and Goldstein (2004) all of these methods are implemented in MLwiN along with including first order or second order Taylor Series expansions. However since these methods are likelihood based frequentist methods they tend to overestimate the precision. Therefore more recently the methods which are implemented in a Bayesian framework using Marcov Chain Monte Carlo methods (Brooks, 1998) also used for parameter estimation which allows capability to use informative prior distributions. These MCMC estimates executed in MLwiN provides consistent estimates though they require a large number of simulations to control of having highly correlated chains. Previous researches conducted using Univariate and Multivariate Multilevel Models Univariate multilevel logit models Before take a look at to the literature on multivariate multilevel analysis, the literature of univariate multilevel analysis is also be necessary to concerned since this thesis is based on some univariate multilevel models prior to fit multivariate multilevel models. In the past decades, many social Scientists used to apply multilevel models for binay data. Therefore it is very important to review how they have implemented their work with less technology. As a aim of that, Guo and Zhao (2000) was able to do a review of the methodologies, hypothesis testing and hierarchical nature of the data involve of past literature. Also they conducted two examples for justify their results. First of all they made a comparison between estimates obtained from MQL and PQL methods which was implemented by MLn and the GLIMMIX method implemented by SAS by using examples. They have shown that the differences in PQL 1 and PQL 2 are small when fitting binary logistic models. Furthermore, they have shown that PQL- 1 and PQL-2 and GLIMMIX are probable to be satisfactory for most of the past studies undertaken in social sciences. Noortgate, Boeck and Meulders (2003) uses multilevel binary logit models for the purpose of analyzing Item Response Theory (IRT) models. For that they carried out an assessment of the nine achievement targets for reading comprehension of students in primary schools in Belgium. They performed a multilevel analyses using the cross-classified logistic multilevel models and used the GLIMMIX macro from SAS, as well as the MLwiN software. However they found that there were some convergence problems arisen by using PQL methods in MLwiN. Therefore they used SAS to carryout analysis. Furthermore they have shown that the cross-classification multilevel logistic model is a very flexible to handle IRT data and the parameters can still be estimated even with the presence of unbalanced data. Multivariate Multilevel Models In the past two decades a very few of researches have sought to fit the multivariate multilevel models to the real world scenarios. Among those also all most all the researches trying to focus basically in educational sectors as well as socio economic sectors. None of them were able to focus these into the medical scenarios. However lack of multivariate multilevel analysis which presents in the field of health and medical sciences this chapter consists of the literatures of multivariate multilevel models in other fields. According to the previous studies of education, Xin Ma (2001) examined the association between the academic achievements and the background of students in Canada by considering three levels of interest. For that the three level Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) was developed in order to achieve his goals. This work allows him to draw the conclusions that both students and schools were differentially successful in different subject areas and it was more obvious among students than among schools. However the success of this study is based on some strong assumptions about the priors of student’s cognitive skills. Exclusive of the field of education Raudenbush, Johnson and Sampson (2003) carried out a study in Chicago to determine the criminal behavior at person level as well as at neighborhood level with respect to some personal characteristics. For this purpose they use a Rasch model with random effects by assuming conditional independence along with the additives. Moreover, Yang, Goldstein, Browne and Woodhouse (2002) developed a multivariate multilevel analysis of analyzing examination results via a series of models of increasing complexity. They used examination results of two mathematics examinations in England in 1997 and analyzed them at individual and institutional level with respect to some students features. By starting from a simpler model of multivariate normality without considering the institutional random effects, they gradually increased the complexity of the model by adding institutional levels together with the multivariate responses. When closely looked at, there work shows that the choice of subject is strongly associated with the performance. Along with this growth of applications of multivariate multilevel models, researches may tend to apply those in to the other fields such as Forestry etc. Hall and Clutter (2004) presented a study regarding modeling the growth and yield in forestry based on the slash pine in U.S.A. In their work, they developed a methodology to fit nonlinear mixed effect model in a multivariate multilevel frame work in order to identify the effects of the several plot-level timber quantity characteristics for the yield of timber volume. In addition to that they also developed a methodology to produce predictions and prediction intervals from those models. Then by using their developments they have predicted timber growth and yield at the plot individual and population level. Grilli and Rampichini (2003) carried out a study to model ordinal response variables according to the students rating data which were obtained from a survey of course quality carried out by the University of Florence in 2000-2001 academic years. For that they developed an alternative specification to the multivariate multilevel probit ordinal response models by relying on the fact that responses may be viewed as an additional dummy bottom level variable. However they not yet assess the efficiency of that method since they were not implemented it using standard software. When considering the evidences of the recent applications of these models the literature shows that Goldstein and Kounali (2009) recently conducted a study on child hood growth with respect to the collection of growth measurements and adult characteristics. For that they extended the latent normal model for multilevel data with mixed response types to the ordinal categorical responses with having multiple categories for covariates. Since data consists of counts they gradually developed the model by starting a model with assuming a Poison distribution. However since the data are not follow exactly a Poisson distribution they treated the counts as an ordered categories to get rid of that problem. Frank, Cerda and Rendon (2007) did a study to identify whether the residential location have an impact to the health risk behaviors of Latino immigrants as they are increasing substantially in every year. For that they used a Multivariate Multilevel Rasch model for the data obtained by Los Angelis family and neighborhood survey based on two indices of health risk behaviors along with their use of drugs and participation for risk based activities. They starting this attempt by modeling the behavior of adolescents as a function of the characteristics related to both individual and neighborhood .According to the study they found that there is an association between increased health risk behaviors with the above country average levels of Latinos and poverty particularly for those who born in U.S.A. Another application of multivariate multilevel models was carried out Subramanian, Kim and Kawachi (2005) in U.S.A. Their main aim was to identify the individual and community level factors for the health and happiness of individuals. For that they performed a multivariate multilevel regression analysis on the data obtained by a survey which was held on 2000. Their findings reflect that those who have poor health and unhappiness have a high relationship with the individual level covariates By looking at the available literature, it can be seen that there are some amount of studies conducted on education and social sciences in other countries but none of the studies conducted regarding health and medical sciences. Therefore it is essential to perform a study by analyzing the mortality rates of some killing diseases which are spread in worldwide to understand risk factors and patterns associated with these diseases in order to provide better insights about the disease to the public as well as to the responsibly policy makers.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Contemporary issues on mobility and work spaces

Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. Retrieved 24 February 2011 . – also Jump up A A Legal Bridge Spanning 100 Years: From the Gold Mines of El Dorado to the ‘Golden' Startups of Silicon Valley By Gregory Grooms, 2010. Assignment 1, mobility – Threaten Darkish First let me explain how this essays goes which I tough it would look and sound better if the definition and samples come first and then after that and also in between I refer them to interior design and our roles and use as one.I'll start with the definition of the word mobility to get to know this term and see it's difference from the other use of mobility as in the new technology and mobile APS for workplaces. Therefore â€Å"Mobility' indicates a worker's ability to physically move around freely in he workplace to accomplish work. Mobility for work can be assisted with items such as a wheel chair, crutches, canes, a desk near the door, a scooter to ride between distant buildings, and a shuttle bus.M obility also refers to a worker's ability to take advantage of various Job opportunities ( I will write more on this issue below), including the ability to relocate, move to a superior Job position, commute a particular distance to work daily, or change positions due to family and civic responsibilities. Some impediments to the mobility of labor include personal hindrances such as geographical location and ability to move, physical and mental ability, and prior Job experiences. Social/legal hindrances to mobility include a lack of educational opportunities, family responsibilities, and various laws.A frequent use of the word, mobility, occurs when organizations use the term to define the upward mobility of employees. An employee with upward mobility has the appropriate mix of needed qualities and characteristics including experience, knowledge, skills, education, cultural fit, and availability. An employee with upward mobility potential is ready for promotional opportunities*. Now a t this point I going to write further more about the mobility of employees and various Job opportunities to see what that points to exactly and how that is related to mobility.Employee mobility is an issue that has taken on a whole new meaning as more and more businesses have gone global. Employees today are commonly asked to take assignments in company locations outside their home country. These kinds of opportunities are seen as Contemporary Issues in Interior Architecture- Fall 2014 2 benefits by many employees who enjoy experiencing new cultures and the multi- cultural exposure. Managing employee mobility is important though, because without the right training and planning, employees moving to foreign countries will not be prepared to meet the challenges such moves present.Your company does not want to find itself faced with loss of productivity, or worse, loss of its best managers because of lack of planning. Being prepared to address the issues related to employee mobility sho uld be included in the company's strategic planning. Quality of living in this matter can be an issue if a company frequently transfer employees within the country or outside the country. Either way there are concerns which should be addressed in these compensation and benefits packages.For example, in the US, a manager transferred from a small town in Texas to a large northeastern city will be faced with many of the same issues as an employee transferred from the US to Canada and that is a very simple and the most easiest transfer in contrast with moving to India or china, a completely different culture. These concerns or issues include cultural and compensation differences. These differences become more pronounced when the company re-assigns employees from a developed country to a third world country.But it is really a matter of degree. Making sure that the staff are well prepared for these types of moves will insure the transition is smooth and they remain productive. After all t he reason managers are transferred is in order to better utilize their talents and skills within the company**. Here I can say our role as an interior designers may help with these issues but with prior researching, planning, somehow rearranging their working spaces even from their own country to their destinations.So that they can familiarize themselves and got to know those areas better prior going there to make them arm proof and repaper Just in case. Many transfers involve more than the staff also. The managers and workers in general have families who are as much a part of the move as the company employees. It's important for the company to recognize the needs of the employee's family also. Unless the staff feel as if their family will also benefit from the transfer without Jeopardizing their safety or welfare, company transfers will meet a lot of resistance.In these cases also our role as interior designers can come to great use by even designing and making their homes look lik e the one in future after move, better said aka and redesign them as person by hurt so they would not feel alienated. Now here are some instances of companies and how they help these employees related with this mobility matter. For instance the Whichever Workforce Mobility*** helps clients optimize their mobile workforce by delivering innovative solutions that make it faster, easier and more cost effective to deploy key talent and transfer critical skills anywhere in the world.Our expertise in Contemporary Issues in Interior Architecture- Fall 2014 3 relocation and assignment management ensures that our clients' mobility programs advance their business and workforce strategies. They deliver sustained customer value through unique service and engagement initiatives, including: – Trusted Partner – Next Practices – Fans – Balanced Scorecard Here again we as designers can be creative about those mentioned above. Even by being faster, easier and more cost effe ctive.By faster that can be as helping deploy critical talent at the speed of business by motivating them through Just by one look but by a great look. Because opportunity won't wait. By easier that can be as to Just open communication, transparency, mutual trust and boundless innovation. And by ore-cost effective that can be vast global resources and in-house expertise to control our clients' program costs which we can be ahead of it by being innovative or creative in these fields to somehow more economic but more fashionable.Also there is other term as labor mobility, which Labor mobility or worker mobility is the geographical and occupational movement of workers. Worker mobility is best gauged by the lack of impediments to such mobility. Impediments to mobility are easily divided into two distinct classes with one being personal and the other being systemic. Personal impediments include physical location, and physical and mental ability. The systemic impediments include education al opportunities as well as various laws and political contrivances and even barriers and hurdles arising from historical happenstance.Increasing and maintaining a high level of labor mobility allows a more efficient allocation of resources. Labor mobility has proven to be a forceful driver of innovations. There I also another International Labor Mobility. Which International labor mobility is the movement of workers between countries. It is an example of an international factor movement. The movement of laborers is based on a difference in resources between countries. According to economists, Over time the migration of labor should have an equalizing effect on wages, with workers in the same industries garnering the same wage.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Principles

Airdrop is the act of extracting cargo out of the back of the airplane while the airplane is flying. The loaders section consists of 30 session ready airman. In order to accomplish this mission every member of the airlift squadron must remain current on all training items. Every six months there are a number of training events that must take place for every member. Without accomplishing each event, the member becomes â€Å"not mission ready† and this, in turn effects the entire squadron.In order to keep everyone mission ready, the chief loaders, Scams Ballard, schedules weekly flying for everyone in the unit. Each member can accomplish a limited number of tasks per flight, so in order to accomplish the entire list of acquirement, a member must fly nearly once every two weeks. This unit, being an Air National Guard unit has its limitations as most members have outside full-time jobs and have limited availability. This makes scheduling difficult for Scams Ballard because it is h is job to ensure everyone is mission ready.Managers abilities (Planning, Organizing, Directing, Controlling) â€Å"Planning is the logical thinking through goals and making the decision as to what needs to be accomplished in order to reach the section's, department's or organization's objectives. Organization is a matter of appointing individuals to assignments or responsibilities that blend together to develop one purpose, to accomplish the goals. It is supervising, or leading workers to accomplish the goals of the organization. The process that guarantees plans are being implemented properly is the controlling process (Trident University, n,d). Scams Ballard is a great manager and leader. He oversees 30 members of our unit in every aspect of the workplace. He delegates certain areas to other supervisors in the unit; like medical readiness, the seasoning training program, safety, and other areas. Scams Ballard plans the schedule for our nit so that everyone remains mission ready a nd readily deployable. Deploying overseas to help other forces is the most important aspect of our job. Scams Ballard also ensures that members who have been flying for a while help out the newest members.The squadron has yearly flight evaluations that must be planned and scheduled so that our unit can ensure everyone knows how to do their job the right way. Scams Ballard and 2 other high ranking members of our unit act as flight evaluators. If during a flight they feel that a member isn't being safe or doing their job correctly, he can immediately disqualify that member from flying. If a member fails his/her evaluation they must fly with an instructor and start the process of becoming re-qualified over a long period.Scams Ballard is also in charge of assigning annual training days for each member. In the Air National Guard, each member is required to have 15 days of active duty training (part of the one weekend a month and two weeks a year slogan). He notifies everyone that they ca n schedule those annual training days and everyone submits their requested days. He is in charge of ensuring everyone shows up on time and is available to accomplish squadron tasks. Department Issues There are a few issues in the department but the biggest area of concern is keeping everyone mission ready.Performing in-flight tasks is at the discretion of the member, as they are required to submit availability sheets to Scams Ballard, so that he knows when people are available. For example, if airdrops are only performed on Tuesdays and Thursdays and the member is only available on Wednesdays, it will be difficult to keep that person up to date. There are other areas, like computer based training, that everyone in the Air Force has to accomplish, but these are additional items on top of our light requirements that Scams Ballard must keep track of.A second issue is the availability of aircraft to perform required tasks. The airplanes at the squadron are nearly 20 years Old, and are s tarting to wear down. This means more time in the maintenance shop being fixed and repaired. The more time an airplane spends in the hangar, the less time members of the unit get to fly it. Principles This work was made in order to explain the principles of economics that is handled in society or a country. People, companies, the government and society must face a common problem: managing scarce resources. Scarcity means that society has limited resources and therefore can not produce all the goods and services that people want to have (unlimited wants). To address the shortage must choose between different alternatives available (go to the stadium or a party, buy a coat or a suit) . The economy is the social science that studies the choices that individuals, genuineness, government and society made to face shortages.It is based on ten principles grouped as follows. Objectives What kind of questions about the economy? How individuals make decisions? How do the Individuals? How does the economy as a whole? ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES The principles of economics are based on ten principles grouped as follows: Group 1: Principles that govern how Individuals make decisions. Else they want. M aking decisions is choosing between two objectives. If a student studies, it is leaving a few hours of sleep. If a parent buys food, you are not buying someone else's reduce.When they decide to spend an additional weight in a well, are having a weight less to spend on other goods or services. Individuals are grouped to form companies which also face these dilemmas. Example, buy more weapons for national defense or increase public spending to improve wages or offer better education. In developing an economic policy, society is faced with the dilemma between efficiency and equity, ‘e, thinning the most of scarce resources and the equitable sharing of the benefits of these resources among its members. 2 The cost of something is what is forgone to obtain it.As individuals face tradeoffs, making decisions should compare the costs and benefits of different alternatives. While determining a benefit is relatively obvious, appears equal to the event cost. Consider for example the decis ion to study (in college or high school). The benefits of this decision can be summarized as intellectual enrichment and a better employment opportunities after graduation. Among the costs have the monetary cost of tuition, fees, food, transportation, photocopying, books and materials that will address over the years of study, but in addition we must consider the use of time devoted to study.The valuation of this time corresponds to the higher salary that would have earned by working instead of studying. This is what is known as opportunity cost alternative higher value that is left to do to get something (in other words, what you give up is the cost of what we get). 3 Rational people think at the margin. Manama describes the desire for a rational person to buy a good as if it were based on the marginal surplus that person would bring an extra element. Manama points out the difference in value between water and diamonds.A marginal increase in the water supply of a person rarely invo lves a significant cost to that person. On the Usually the decisions that individuals make are not only two aspects, there is a range of possibilities. So a student does not choose between studying for a contest O hours or 24 hours a day, choose an intermediate time. These small additional adjustments to a plan of action are known as marginal changes. Individuals and companies can make better decisions thinking at the margin. A decision is rational only if the marginal benefit involved is greater than the marginal cost.Suppose that an airline must decide how much to charge passengers for a flight between Santiago and Miami. Suppose the round trip on a plane with a capacity of 200 seats is $ 900,000. In this case, the average cost per seat is $ 4,500. One might be tempted in this case to conclude that the airline should not sell tickets at prices below $ 4. 500. Sin But the airline can increase profits marginally thinking. Suppose the flight is about to leave with 20 empty seats, and suppose there is a passenger waiting to take the plane and is willing to pay $ 3,000 for it.Should the airline sell you a ticket? Of course you do. If the plane has empty seats, the cost of adding a passenger is negligible: although the average cost is $ 4,500, the marginal cost is simply the food that the extra passenger will consume. So, while the passenger was willing to pay more than the marginal cost, selling a ticket is profitable. 4 People respond to incentives. Individuals decide comparing costs and benefits, but their behavior may change if the costs and benefits change.Example, if you raise the price of a kilo of apples this becomes an incentive to buy pears. If the government maintains the fuel tax is an incentive to increase purchases of cheap cars. Group 2: Principles relating to the way in which individuals interact. Trade can improve the welfare of each individual. This is because there specialization. A family may decide to move in the field and build your home, gro w food, raise cattle, produce wool and leather to make clothing, etc. But not everyone has the skills to perform all those tasks which makes the action is inefficient.That's why there is trade (between individuals, businesses, countries) where each actor specializes in what it does best and this eventually leads to there being a greater quantity and variety of goods and services at lower cost as their production is efficient (so there Fats) 6. Arrests are a good way to organize economic activity. Currently the market economy has shifted to centralized economies, IEEE those in which the central government planning models determined what occurred, who did it, how much and who consumed him.The market economy involves the decisions of millions of individuals and businesses. People decide what to buy with their incomes and firms decide what to produce. These individuals and firms interacting in markets for goods and services where prices and self-interest guide their decisions. As stated in the above principle, the markets are good regulators of economic activity, over at times the state should intervene to promote efficiency and equity. This happens when â€Å"market failures† which are situations in which the market alone does not efficiently allocate resources are presented.Externalities and market power are two examples of market failures. Externalities are consequences that the action of an individual or company has on the welfare of another individual or company. Example is pollution; a company in the production process pollutes not try to decrease unless the State applies fines for polluting. Market power, meanwhile, is defined as the ability of an agent or a small group of them to significantly influence market prices. This is the case of monopolies, oligopolies, monopoly (ANSI, Arafat) and oligopolies (supermarkets who buy vegetables to farmers).Group 3: principles of how the economy works as a whole. 8 The standard of living of a country depends on its ability to produce goods and services. Productivity levels, IEEE, the amount of goods and services produced for each hour of work are key determinant of living standards of the countries. Thus, a country with high productivity will have more products and its people have more clothes, more DOD, more cars, etc. , which makes your standard of living is high compared to countries with low productivity where the supply of products is lower.This leads us to note that the growth rate of productivity of a country determines the growth rate of its average income. Obviously that productivity is not the only determinant of quality of life, but the most important. Others are public policies that foster education, technology acquisition, training of employees, etc. 9 Prices rise when the government prints too much money. A government decides to increase the amount of money when it is not able to solve TTS spending to revenues (taxes, patents, etc. , the problem is that this leads to inflati on, IEEE the increase in the general level of prices in the economy . A high and prolonged inflation imposes some costs on society, so keep at a low level is a goal of those responsible for the economic policy of a government (and worldwide). 10 Society faces a short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment. The inflation problem could be solved if the government reduces the amount of money in the economy, but the solution is not really as simple as closely (inversely) with inflation is unemployment.This is reflected in the Phillips curve: If the overspent decides to actually decrease the amount of money in order to reduce inflation, a general fall in prices (more lengthen the short term), resulting in a drop in occurs corporate income, if this happens, companies will seek to decrease their costs financial management conclusion In conclusion this work we did with the learning or understanding of economic principles which are governed in a country that are 10 principles to con sider in a given economy, we will see a summary of each of them, to know . People face tradeoffs. To have something, we usually sacrifice something else, either time, money or other sources. 2 The Cost of Something is what you give up to get. Everything has a cost and a benefit. Our decisions will compare these costs and benefits between the alternatives. Here comes the issue of opportunity cost, which basically refers to what you give up to get something else. 3 Rational People Think at the Margin. People make decisions by comparing costs and benefits in terms of margin.This involves knowing the benefits and costs of each decision alternative. 4 The People Respond to Incentives. Marginal changes in costs or benefits motivate people to respond. Then decisions will sake an alternative when the marginal benefit is greater than marginal cost. 5 The Exchange can make everyone better. People earn for their ability to exchange something for something else. This exchange allows people can specialize in what it does best. Markets are Usually a Good Way To Organize Economic Activity. In a market economy there is a relationship between the families and businesses. On the one hand families decide what they will buy and who will work for this and on the other hand businesses decide what will be produced and who will hire for this. 7 Governments sometimes can improve economic performance. When markets fail, the government can intervene to promote efficiency and equity.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Memory Management Challenges And Alogrithm For Traditional...

Memory Management Challenges And Alogrithm for Traditional Memory Mapping Abstract:- According to the need of real time systems many algorithm have been use to allocate memory efficiently Real time system may crash if they do not get memory on priority or request memory loss can also be prevented by using memory allocation algorithm our goal is to focus on traditional memory management algorithm according to their efficiency and their response time to recognize the problem and limitation and challenges that occurs problem which may reduce the performance of real time system. This research paper will help you in determining the real time memory management algorithm technique the latency rate and problem. Introduction:- Efficient Memory management is performed by modern operating system and still working for efficient memory allocation for application because the main stuff is to provide required memory block for application with minimum memory loss as compared to the traditional memory allocation which is known as â€Å"Memory Fragmentation† which keep the records of those block that are free and those that are allocated to tasks. For the purpose memory allocation designs are being used for example: Static Memory Allocation, Dynamic Memory Allocation describe in Fig: 1 Fig:1 {Memory Allocation} Real Time System support both techniques and both of them distributes memory in different way in Static Memory Allocation, memory is allocated at compile time it has efficient