Thursday, October 31, 2019

Free Agency is a Chimera Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Free Agency is a Chimera - Essay Example No loving mother ever set out to become an alcoholic of her own free will. Free will would dictate otherwise. Yet, she is driven down the road of addiction by forces outside herself and nudged along, not by free will, but by motives dictated by complex situations and self-serving self-defense. The drive toward self-defense can be demonstrated in man's overriding will of self-preservation. The belief in a soul serves to give hope that a part of us will survive our own death. Yet, man will go to the depths of human depravity in an attempt to insure self-preservation of the human body. Cannibalism, betrayal, and murder have all been witnessed when men have been faced with the death of their own body. If free agency existed, it would alter our actions in these cases and result in more acceptable behavior. Our actions are not driven by free agency but are the result of self-defense and the desire to gain advantage. We obey the law because it is to our advantage, not because we make a free choice to do so. In the complexity of decisions we are confronted with, the action we take is based on the force that pushes us down a path of maximum gain and minimum harm. Even the apparently selfless action of giving to charity is taken to provide the self with satisfaction.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Critical Management Studies Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Critical Management Studies - Coursework Example Modern life, to a considerable extent, is governed by managerial or economistic approach whereby, in the context of business in organizations, the efficient allocation of resources takes precedence over humanistic or ethical concerns. In this respect, many public services are increasingly facing new forms of managerialism, while many aspects of socio-cultural activities are also being subjected to the same business, management, and economic perspectives. Over the years, narrow interests such as financial institutions have traditionally dominated research in business, management, and economics leading to biased theory of practice (Barratt 2011, p.110), which CMS has been countering; CMS is now a valid and vital aspect of the Business school curriculum, and is even visible in professional bodies for practitioners in business, management, and organization studies. The pervasive scepticism regarding the essence of the mainstream management ideas and practices have spurred the need to expand the field of management through research, to espouse alternative innovative ways of understanding management (Alvesson and Willmott 2012, p.5), instead of relying on the ineffective status quo, thus the emergence of Critical Management Studies. Overall, CRS often seeks to bring to fore the subtle workings of power while identifying and reforming the daily workplace practices that enforce injustices both in firms and in the society. CMS views the prevailing conceptions and forms of management as well as organization as unjustified and unsustainable (Alcadipani & Hodgson 2009, p.130), with a keen focus on the social injustice as well as the environmental destructiveness of the wider socio-economic systems that managers and specific firms serve and reproduce (Foster & Wiebe 2010, p.271). In this respect, it is not really the failures of individual managers or the poor management of specific firms that informs and motivates CMS,

Sunday, October 27, 2019

An Introduction To Banking In Nepal

An Introduction To Banking In Nepal Bank originally derived from the word Banco meaning Bench is termed as a financial institution which are established in order to provide financial services to its customers while helping the investors at the same time. (De Alberquque, M., 1855) These are licensed by the government so as to help in the monetary aspects of the country. In contrast to Nepal, generally Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) the central Bank of Nepal has divided into different groups and had licensed as per the limitations for the service. They are categorized as Commercial bank into Group A, Development banks B and similarly finance companies and credit unions to Group C Machhapuchchhre Bank Limited: An overview Machhapuchchhre Bank Limited (MBL) is legally registered as commercial bank in 1998 in Nepal. It started its banking services from western region of Nepal with its head office in Pokhara, Nepal. Having a slogan Service with personal touch, the bank now has expanded its business into various parts of Nepal. Companys profile: Mission and Corporate strategy: Machhapuchchhre Bank Limited (MBL) believes on the provision of the best services throughout different regions of Nepal to facilitate the customers with the extravagant banking services to their homes. The bank is also one of the modern banks with various modern technologies which of course make banking a revolutionary interest and great help. With its company slogan, the companys mission is to promote banking to different part of Nepal whether its hilly region or Terai or even mountains, MBL strives to facilitate the customers with fast, efficient and reliable service with personal touch as well as meeting the international standards at the same time. MBL believes to provide its full fledged banking service and had started its full fledged branch in the Jomsom located high up in mountains too. It has its corporate strategy of serving fast, efficient and reliable service to promote banking either by providing credits, deposits and even safe and fastest remittance. The bank has targeted to open 4 more branches in the year 2009/10 so as to provide service with personal touch. Mission and Vision chart: Mission statement of an organization is a formal written statement which guides the objectives and actions to be fulfilled. The mission statement serves the framework or context within which strategies are formulated (Hill Ch., Jones, G., 2008) The mission statement also gives guidelines of the actions and objectives to gain. G. Johnson, K. Scholes and R. Whittington defined mission as overriding purpose in line with values or expectation of stake holders.(Exploring corporate strategy, pp13) Vision statement of an organization is the future note where the company wants to be. G. Johnson, K. Scholes and R. Whittington defined vision as desired future state: the aspiration of the organisation (Exploring corporate strategy, pp13) Mission Statement To Serve customers with best, effective and efficient service in affordable rates and provide each and every service with personal touch. Vision Statement To be the top commercial bank with full fledged service all over Nepal and to be the No. 1 Bank of all year recognized by Nepal Rastra Bank Fig, 1 Mission and Vision chart of Machhapuchchhre Bank Limited Goals and Objectives: MBL possess a goal to be one of the popular and perfect service oriented bank rather than profit oriented one. MBL even had issued various plans and objectives to help in the increment of the services to its customers. In order to ease the banking service, MBL had planned to start telephone banking by which the clients can stay in touch with their financial transactions just a step away from phone. They even had prepared a goal to issue credit cards which some banks only have the service which can be said as another important goal and objectives to have a new turn in to banking. In addition, to broaden the service, MBL will be opening its 4 more branches very soon. The objectives of the bank can be analyzed to provide maximum services to the people in each and every part of Nepal. Organizational Structure, Stakeholders and Management: MBL is operated and managed by Chairman Mr. Surya Bahadur K.C., 6 board of directors and CEO Mr. Bhaikajee Shrestha (http://www.machbank.com) With approximate figure of 320 staffs all over the branches and head office, the company follows Line organization but the decisions making authority are being granted to the branch managers for their designated branch. Various decisions, plans and policies are being decided by board members and final approval is done by the chairman however day to day operational decisions are being approved by the CEO itself. Normally, the organization has all its delegation of power being centralized except day to day operational decisions apart from head office to the branch managers for their designated branch. Most of the stakeholders are the board of directors and some political bodies too but majority of the investments are done by the board of directors. Also some staffs occupy some value of the stakes as well. Chairman/Board of Directors Chief Executive Officer Fig. 2 Organization chart of Machhapuchchhre Bank Limited Business Profile: Products and Services: MBL provides various ranges of services to the customers. It is the pioneer in introducing the latest technology and to introduce the centralized banking software named GLOBUS BANKING SYSTEM developed by Temenos NV, Switzerland. Furthermore, MBL also provides internet banking, mobile banking, any branch banking, Trade Finance, Credits, ATMs (Automated Teller Machines), Remittance and various sort of deposits. The company is very sooner going to launch MBL credit cards and telephone banking as well. Also, MBL is the first bank in Nepal to provide PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) to its valued customers. Operational Performance: MBL overall has shown a good performance as per its unaudited financial reports of the year 2008/09. Over its past decades MBL has shown increment on profit as well as increment on its branches which of course shows that the company is doing well so far. At the end of fourth quarter, MBL had a net profit of 92M which shows that the company had numerous transactions throughout the whole quarter. (Source: Unaudited 4th quarter end (15/07/09) of the fiscal year 2008/09, http:// www.machbank.com) Market Position and Share: MBL overall have a good market value and goodwill at the same time. Currently the market value of the share is NPR 310.00 per share which shows a green light on the progress of the company. Also, the bank have got 31 branches till date and have its 10 upcoming branches to be opened which of course can be assumed as the market position of the company is good and doing well so far. (http://www.nepalstock.com, Nepal Stock Exchange as of closing price of 6th December 2009) Part 2: An analysis of the external and internal environment of the company examined above and competitive position of the company (1000 words) Every company is affected by its external and internal environment. These are the integral part of the companies itself. External environment can be described as a set of elements which are not the part of the organization but possess an influence upon the organization. The external environment may constitute of consumers, suppliers and competitors which have the direct effect on the organization whereas the indirect elements of external environment may be government, State of the economy, scientific and technical growth, socio-cultural events and laws and policies by the government. Hence, whatever is the new external environment, the organization has to cope up themselves. Similarly, internal environment can be termed as the environment within the organization itself. They may include employees, shareholders or stake holders etc. The internal environment can be modified or amended as the whole authority and rights are embedded on the organization itself apart from external one. Internal environment of the company: The internal factors can be analyzed by various models however the internal environment can be analyzed by using Lewis six factors model which describes the in-depth analysis of internal environment in context of MBL. Also, these factors give a broad idea of involvement of various departments in order to describe the internal environment of the company. IT (Information Technology): MBL uses a very advanced technology for the banking services. A new advanced technology called GLOBUS is being integrated in the company which provides best services in the banking field. It is also considered as the effective and powerful software which provides related backup services. The company also have its centralized information technology department which regularly looks ahead into develop new softwares and are alert 24 hours for any problems to occur. Also, the company have introduced V-Sat network for the branches which are in mountain regions as Mustang, Damak etc. Overall, we can say that the companys IT sector is very much advanced and is much more effective in banking environment. Management Capabilities: MBL have a team of capable employees working in various departments. They are well qualified and the bank also regularly conducts various training programmes so as to make their employees much more capable in any sort of situations. Also, the company organizes in house seminars so as to promote the employees knowledge much more. Because of its talented employees, the company is increasing its branches and is earning much more profit at the same time. The management is much more effective which is hence enabling the company to exist till now in the fierce competition of banking in Nepal. Finance: Finance is one of a very important aspect for any firm. Considering the financial status of MBL, it is growing day by day and earning much more profit. MBL earned around NPR 92 M at the fourth quarter end of year 2009 whereas corresponding earlier year of NPR 85M and is earning day by day. MBL have a good relation with the central bank even and can issue up more shares upon needed. Thus it can be analysed that the financial position of the bank is much more stable. Research and Development: MBL focuses on to the research and development of new aspects of banking and services to its prospective clients. The company has its own research and development department which focuses on to research new activities and to promote their services in to peoples. Because of the fierce competition in banking sector in Nepal, this department plays a vital role in to develop new schemes and new services to the clients apart from other banks. Also, the company invests good sum of money in to research and development of new services towards future perspectives. Marketing: Marketing can be defined as the management process that seeks to maximize returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage. (Paliwoda, Stanley J, John K. Ryan, 2009). The company has its own marketing department which co-ordinates with research and development department. They both have the same motive in order to generate much more potentiality and increase its turnover in best services to the customers. Also, the department regularly dissolves in market to gather new ideas and concepts which by the research and development department makes research and develops new strategies. HR (Human Resources): MBL have another department which looks around human resources and administration of the company. MBL welcomes new generation to employ in the company and believes on equal opportunity for all. The department also administers and involves in to budgeting daily activities of the company. Also, HR department helps in to gather talented peoples and conducts various assessments among the employees in order to gain the best outcome of it. The internal environment of the MBL focuses on to its core components as per Lewis 6 factors model. Analyzing the model, we can illustrate that the internal components of the company is very much effective and plays an important role in determining the internal perspectives of MBL. External Environment of the company: External environment for MBL are generally customers, competitors, central banks policies and socio-cultural aspects. The external environment plays a vital role in determining the external status of the company. Normally, the external environment is uncontrollable but directly affects on the functioning of the company. The external environment of MBL can be picterised by using PESTLE analysis. The PESTLE analysis determines the political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal and environmental aspects which gives a clear picture of the external environment of the company. Political factors: Nepal is a country where political factors play a vital role in each and every industry. Because of the regular strikes, riots in the country many more industries are very much affected. In context to MBL, because of the political factors, the company is suffering a lot as they cant operate efficiently during strikes, riots and because of the regular change of the government, various rules and regulations are modified which hence creates a various problems in to the banking of the company especially in MBL. Economic factors: The economic situation of Nepal is always fluctuating. Because of it, the exchange rates of various currencies are changing on rapid basis. Also, because of the development of various banks in Nepal, customers have a high bargaining power in between the banks. This has affected MBL severely as the customers who are only on MBL are now diverted on to the other companies. Even because of the economy in Nepal, most of the people dont wish to invest money in to any projects and the ratios of consumer loans are decreasing because of the interest rates and the economy. Socio-cultural factors: MBL possess certain social responsibilities and are maintaining good as they are much more into providing good services to the customers. Also, the company invests certain amounts in to education for childrens and various governmental and non governmental activities. It has been a trend in Nepalese banking sector of investing funds into various programs for child welfare, transportation and various educational activities. Also, the company has various schemes for different age groups and also contributes for their personal growth especially for children. Technological factors: The banking sector of Nepal is following advanced technology in to serving new services to the customers. Various advanced programs are being organized in to gather new innovations in terms of banking of the company. MBL adopts advanced technology in to serve effective and accurate services to the customers. Also, the company even invests funds into its research and development department so as to launch new services in considering the needs of the current market. Legal factors: The banking of Nepal is regulated by Central Bank of Nepal (i.e. Nepal Rastra Bank) The central bank regulates various rules and regulations in order to constitute the proper banking services to the customers. The central bank regularly changes rules and regulations which hence make a vast confusions and time in order to adopt the new rules and regulations. Also, the legal factors of Nepal affect the proper functioning of the banking services in Nepal. Not only in context of MBL but overall banks in Nepal. Environmental factors: The environmental factors play a vital role in each and every organization. In terms of MBL, the environmental factors are generally attitudes of consumers, media and the government. Because of the reputation of MBL, various customers trust the company much more which is hence helping in to gain success in company. Also, media also helps the company in to promote their services towards the general public as by the investment towards the media sector as well as various other sectors too. Thus internal and external environment plays a vital role in determining the companys portfolio from inside and outside layer as well. In terms of MBL, we can demonstrate that the internal environment of the company is much more effective whereas the external environment is much more effected by various factors as these can hardly be controlled. Identification and evaluation of alternative strategies that would consist of corporate goals and objectives and select an appropriate future new strategy. Strategy is the mean by which objectives are achieved and pursued on time. According to Gavetti G and Jan Rivikin W Strategy is choice about what it chooses to do and not to do. MBL generally focuses into customer satisfaction and excellent service to their business clients. To increase more customer satisfaction and performance, MBL always strive to improve the performance by various methods and latest technology. To be the best service provider, MBL aims to open additional branches so as the banking service can be available readily anywhere any time. However, various alternative strategies can be discovered which will increase the customer satisfaction level and services at the same time. Ghemawat P. developed a model called AAA triangle which identifies three distinct types of strategy. They refer to adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage. Adaptation means to familiarize with new technology and environment and aims to maximize companys local relevance. This also boosts the revenues and market share by maximizing a firms local relevance by simply creating local units in each national market that do pretty good job carrying out all steps in the supply chain. (Ghemawat, P. 2007) This framework even focuses on to the company to develop its new image towards the new generation. Since, the world is changing day by day and is the new technology; the adaptation into new environment is a must. The another one is aggregation where a company tries to achieve economies of scale by developing new products and services by creating both local and global operations. It also attempts to deliver economies of scale by creating regional or sometimes global operations and involves standar dizing the product or service offering and grouping together the development and production process. The company also has to develop and introduce new products and services which reasonably have benefits upon everyone. Arbitrage means to locate and supply services in different parts. It is the exploitation of differences between national or regional markets, often by locating separate parts of the supply chain in different places. (Ghemawat, P. 2007) Thus as a future strategy, the company should now focus on to developing new products and services and enlarging its business. Fig 3.Ghemawats AAA triangle framework Another Strategy is BCG matrix developed by Boston Consulting Group. According to Kotlar (1996) BCG approach helps to classify a companys all SBUs according to the growth share matrix. It identifies firms strategic business units relating to its market share and market growth rate. The growth share matrix can be divided into four types as follows: Question Marks Star High Low High Dogs Cash cows Market Growth Low Market share Fig 4. Boston Consulting Groups BCG Matrix There are two axis which represents as Market Growth rate and Market Share. Each and every cell inside the matrix can be highlighted as follows: Stars: Stars are high market growth in relation to high market share. These are the pillars for each and every business. The stars in MBL are the deposits and loans and advances by which the company is able to make much more income. This requires much more investments as well and also increase in high market share and growth as well because if the company have more deposits and loans, the companys profit will increase subsequently. Cash Cows: Cash Cows are low growth in market but high market share. These require less investment but would affect in the market shares. In MBL, cash cows can be considered for Letter of Credits, guarantees which require less investment but would affect on the market shares. The cash cows dont necessarily effect the market growth as regards to stars. Question Marks: Question marks are low share business units in high market growth. The question marks are some aspects which the management should think in order to overcome it and turn into stars or cows. In MBL, the question marks can be market for cards (debit and credit cards) etc. The company should have special consideration in question marks. Dogs: Dogs are low growth in market with low share price. They may generate some amount of funds but doesnt make any guarantees on companys income. In MBL, Dogs are lockers departments etc. BCG Matrix gives a broad idea about the factors that are prevailing in a company which are giving much more profit or loss in terms of market group. This strategy could give the company an innovative idea about building or restructuring the business. Comparing both the strategies, MBL should adopt Ghemawats AAA triangle framework as this clearly matches to the organization goals and objectives to attain in future. The framework explains that to stabilize a product, there has to be an adaptation factors, aggregate it and arbitrage. MBLs target is to be the top commercial bank in Nepal and introduce new products and services which can only be possible if the company focuses on the framework. Also MBL should focus on the information flow to all the branches so as to properly stabilize the new services. Neilson, G., Martin K. and Powers E (2008) suggests that the enterprises fails at strategy execution because they go straight to structural reorganization and neglect the most powerful drivers of effectiveness-decision rights and information flow. Thus, before starting any new services or any new tasks, the company should gain its adaptation factor so that they could adopt in new environment easily. After adopting in the environment t he company also needs to increase its market into local and national markets to attain much more productivity. Thus we can see that if MBL adopts Ghemawats AAA triangle framework, the company would be able to attain its mission and vision that has been projected by them. This would increase the companys effectiveness on any tasks and would help them to gain much more success at the same time. Kim C W and Mauborgne R, Blue Ocean Strategy argues that companys performance is not necessarily determined by industries competitive environment. It argues that strategy can shape the structure and it is called reconstructions. They even add that instead of letting the environment define your strategy, craft a strategy that defines your environment. This highlights that rather than creating a strategy limited only in papers you will require to adopt to the environment, aggregate them towards the near future group and develop them in local or global market which is very much similar to what Ghemawat had proposed in his framework. Identify and develop outline time table and resources requirement to implement new strategy. Its very much obvious that to make each and every strategy successful, various resources and time tables are required. Proper dedication and knowledge will only be able to make a project successful. The strategy developed by Ghemawat as AAA triangle framework is something which I suggest to be adopted. The strategy Equal opportunities to every people financing in their needs and motivate into a new track would certainly help to start up banking into a new style and lead to a successful pathway. This strategy would develop an awareness and usage of the services to the maximum. Basically, new guidelines should be created for to make this strategy fruitful. A system where people can get financing easier should be initialized so as new business entrepreneurs could be able to start up their business with the banks help at the same time. Various job opportunities should be require generating up not specifically full time as initialization of part time or hourly job basis could be done so t hat maximum number of fresh graduates or unemployed people could get employment and in return the organization will be benefited by different ideas, opinions and new way of working. As Ghemawats AAA framework suggests Adaptation, Arbitrage and Aggregation, various resources should be allocated and new services to be launched as: Launching various deposits schemes targeting to students, old age peoples and children. Inauguration of old age cards, student card etc. which can be used in shopping centre, transportations etc. Launching online bill payments from their accounts via mobile. Use of Credit cards system elsewhere. Cash Deposits in any cash points or ATMs. Collaboration with educational institutions for banking services. Promotion of various NGOs, INGOs or programs to advertise them free of cost. More job opportunities to account holders, insurance benefits or easily loan availability facility. The time frame for this strategy entirely depends upon how fast the authority decides to start it up however if this new style of business could be adopted, major changes will occur and the profit will sky rocket like never happened so. Generally, the top level managers should require understanding the benefit of this strategy and how it could be implemented in short span of time. New concepts, ideas should be promoted which could cover the usual old style of banking as with the new age of development. Meanwhile, the experience of old peoples which new ideas and working style of modern age could be more helpful to boom the business and to have a look on to the business with different perspective. Meanwhile, the company could employ 30% of experienced old people and the rest with new and energetic peoples. This would certainly create up a milestone between old peoples experience and new peoples working efficiency. Furthermore, invitation or equal opportunities should be started so tha t the people who belong to lower community or of different age group could certainly use their efficiency to attain the same goal. Major functional departments should also be considered while discussing the time frame and the resources required adopting AAA triangle framework strategy as: HR (Human Resources)/Administration: This department should recruit new employees and should start up giving adequate trainings to its exisiting employees. The administration should also allocate various resources required for to start up new services. The time frame for this s Finance: The finance department should allocate budget required for the resources and new projects. IT (Information Technology): This is a primary essence as without new technology new services cant be launched in todays computer generation. Marketing/Research and Development: Various researches should be conducted prior making decisions and hence publicity of services should be done at the same time. Therefore, summarizing the all we can analyze that the materials that are required for to implement the new strategy are time consideration, additional opportunities in various field, change of working system, Focus on to new peoples or modern age groups and also consideration in the new technology. These sort of materials could certainly help in to implement the new strategy successfully and to start up the new perfection on to the business however new understanding and far sightedness upon these should be developed at the beginning before proceeding ahead with these materials. Also the time factor should be considered as well so that the strategy could be implemented on the right time. Furthermore, it can also be said that success entirely depends upon opportunities and hard work, hence to be more successful, an individual should be able to do hard work and the company should be able to create new opportunities. Then only the strategies could really show up some colors on the devel opment and growth of the company.

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Citizens of Brave New World Essay -- Literary Analysis

In 1932, Aldous Huxley wrote a book entitled Brave New World. It was an image of a dystopian future where pleasure and science were carefully combined to control the average citizen. The book was received with a variety of opinions ranging from impressed to scandalized. Seventeen years later, George Orwell published Nineteen Eighty-Four, a novel that was yet another detailed picture of what a dystopian future might look like. While similar in its depiction of what can happen when ordinary people no longer have any power, Orwell’s book took a very different look as to how that power would be taken away. In 1984, the government uses peoples’ fear and lack of knowledge to make them submissive. When the novel was published in 1949, it too was met with a mix of both praise and criticism. Both of these narratives present the ideas of lack of individual freedom, the loss of history and truth, and the degradation of inter-personal relationships. The books both include these the mes, but they present them in exceptionally dissimilar ways. At the advent of their publication, both novels, depending on the readers’ opinion, were considered accurate pictures of what the future of society could be. However, with the passing of time, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World has become the most accurate representation of our societies’ departure from the family unit, personal freedom, and informational veracity. The idea that Brave New World has proven true to prediction is apparent in the rapid change taking place in our society today. Before that change can be examined, however, the differences between the two novels must be discussed. One important factor of difference are the time periods in which the two books were written. George Orwell wrote 1984 ... ...o. Inc, 2.Feb.2011. Web. 9.Apr.2012. . â€Å"Brave New World -Themes, Motifs, and Symbols.† Spark Notes, n.d. Web. 9.Apr.2012. . Herr, Norman. â€Å"Television & Health.† The Sourcebook for Teaching Science. California Stat University, n.d. Web. 9.Apr.2012. . â€Å"When Did the Great Depression Start and End?† wanttoknowit.com, n.d. Web. 9.Apr.2012. . Wilde, Robert. â€Å"When did World War 2 end?† About.com. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 9.Apr.2012. . Aldous, Huxley. Brave New World. New York: Harper & Row, 1932. Print. Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Effects on Hurricane Igor

The Effects of Hurricane Igor The people of Newfoundland and Labrador are used to watching natural disasters on television, not usually do they get to expierence them up front. But on September 22, 2010 Newfoundland and Labrador was hit by Hurricane Igor,a storm that effected everyone in different ways. Some of the effects of Hurricane Igor were flooding and power outages that lasted up to 12 days. The Hurricane ripped through Newfoundland as a category 1 Hurricane, and left at least 30 communities in state of emergency.This was definitely something that the people of Newfoundland were not expecting to get so serious, and definitely were not ready for. As a result of Hurricane Igor the amount of rain that had fallen which was more than 200 millimetres caused flash floods which destroyed roads, bridges, and even homes. In some places flood water was higher than entire homes. Igor ruined thousands of homes do to water damages. Many people lost everything in there homes. One of the St. John's soccer fields were completely destroyed as a esult of the storm costing the city a lot of money. In one extreme case an 80 year old man from Random Island was swept off to sea when the road beneath him was washed away. Rain was one of the major factors causing damage but there were also other extreme factors. Power outages were also a damaging factor which effected numerous homes throughout the island. Winds as high as 140 km/h not only broke off poles but also knocked down trees which in return knocked down a large number of power lines. This power disruption affected as many as 7,000 households and usinesses leaving them without power for several days. The Eastern School District was forced to close schools. In most cases up to a week or until power was restored. To help cope with the power outages places like The Salvation Army provided assisstance to people throughout the island by providing them food, clothing and shelter. This was a great help until power restored. As a result of Hurricane Igor, people who have experienced it first hand now realize how vunerable they are to natural disasters and now know that this s not something you just watch on television. This also taught the people of Newfoundland and Labrador how to better themselves for future similar occurances. For example, there was recentley a category 3 Hurricane Leslie which caused a lot of the same distruction. But at the same time, people were better prepared to cope with the Hurricane by taking it more seriously and not just waiting until it was to late to react. Which in conclusion would have made this storm a lot worse than what it was. Sarah Stevenson

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The Landlady Essay

The Landlady Essay The landlady; is she a normal bath B&B owner or a psychotic, sinister, visitor stuffing murderer? The Landlady seems from her physical appearance a sweet, middle aged woman who lives alone running her B&B. â€Å"She seemed terribly nice. † These are the inner thoughts of Billy Weaver, when he first meets the Landlady. Roald Dahl is a very good and clever author, and he uses a clever method to make us feel so suspicious of the Landlady, he contradicts himself when he describes the Landlady and when Billy describes her. He gives her a sinister edge, â€Å"He pressed the bell- and out she popped!It made him jump. † But when billy is thinking about the landlady we can clearly see that in his opinions she is just a sweetheart. â€Å"After all, she not only was harmless—there was no question about that—but she was also quite obviously a kind and generous soul. † On the other hand, Roald Dahl makes us very suspicious of the Landlady, mak ing her say creepy and sinister things all the time, but unfortunately for Billy he doesn’t pick on them. â€Å"There wasn’t a blemish on his body† The main thing he uses is the landlady’s dialogue; it really alerts the reader to the evil lurking within her.One of my favourite things that Roald Dahl does is make the Landlady seem very secure in what she is assaying once she has drunk the tea. Like the remarks about the people in the house. Before he had sipped the tea, she says; â€Å"We have it all to ourselves† But when she knows he has had the poison in the tea she says things like; â€Å"But my dear boy, he never left. He’s [Mr Mulholland is] still here. Mr Temple is also here. They’re on the fourth floor, both of them together. † Another thing I like is the interrupting when Billy is so close to finding out the truth. â€Å"Now wait a minute,† he said. Wait just a minute. Mulholland . . . Christopher Mulholland . . . wasn’t that the name of the Eton schoolboy who was on a walking tour through the West Country, and then all of a sudden . . . † â€Å"Milk? † she said. â€Å"And sugar? † â€Å"Yes, please. And then all of a sudden . . . † â€Å"Eton schoolboy? † she said. â€Å"Oh no, my dear, that can’t possibly be right, because my Mr Mulholland was certainly not an Eton schoolboy when he came to me. † The Landlady is a great book and I really enjoyed reading it because it has this rather dark and sinister edge that I look for in all the books I read.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Abortion Essays

Abortion Essays Abortion Essay Abortion Essay Most of people think that unexcused homicide is morally incorrect but that abortion is all right. With this essay am trying to say thats just the same.Why is right to kill a baby the day before its born and not the day after? The reason for most is that a fetus is not a human but it has 46 human chromosomes, and developing, so its becoming one. In cense its a human and no one has the right to decide an other humans life that is only gods job.Abortion is not a way out. Most mothers that abort think that thats a way to be un-pregnant but the fact of pregnancy in her is still there and more than ever. The baby is still part of the mother.Most women that abort think that abortion is the end of the problem but is the beginning of a bigger one. One side is the physical part. The body is prepared to have the baby, and suddenly, without a biological preview its taken away. That provokes a major internal disorder like bleedings and breast cancer. And the other side is the physiological part and maybe the most important one. The most common feeling on women that abort is guilt, in many cases that guilt into depression and in a big percentage that depression leads to suicide so then, why abort? Theres no reason.HIV is an other reason why mothers abort. What most people dont know is that not always HIV is transmitted to the baby. mothers should give a chance to the fetus to live. There are a very low percentage of babies that catch the diesis from their mothers. Yes you may say that is an invasion to the womens right and liberty, but, what about the babys right they have the right to live.An other reason for mothers that abort is money. But if its because of that there are other ways out like giving the baby in adoption. And the things mothers need during the pregnancy is free.The most common reason for abortion is violation but adoption is the way out if the family doesnt want the baby. Mothers should think first that half of the baby is still part of the mother and if the other half is not wanted, the mother should think in their half.If its for fear of the family do not abort, first order your priorities, a punishment worth a lot less than a life.Abortion is illegal and it means your baking the law and its very dangerous. They are done in places without sanity and there is no chance of proving that the doctor is a real one. Infections are every where and the chance of getting one is very high and if you catch it no one will respond, doctors wont be there to support and possibly will end in death.In conclusion id like to finish with a little reflection, to kill the fetus is to kill the baby, to kill the baby is to kill the child, to kill the child is to kill the teenager, to kill the teenager is to kill the adult, and to kill the adult is to kill the older person.For the full value of a person in every stage of development, killing the potential human is killing the actual one.

Monday, October 21, 2019

30 Unprofessional Things You Should Never Say at Work

30 Unprofessional Things You Should Never Say at Work Being â€Å"professional† can feel a bit new at first. It takes some getting used to. Just like any other social arena, the working world has its own special set of rules. One of the cardinal ones is to speak and conduct oneself like a grown up. Here are 30 words and phrases you should never say at work. 1. I could list all the words here that you shouldn’t use, but that list would be too long. Bottom line: if it’s a curse word, keep it for home use.2. â€Å"We’ve always done it like†¦Ã¢â‚¬ If someone asks you to do something you aren’t accustomed to, or to do it in a different way, this is the last thing you should say. Save the constructive feedback for the review.3. â€Å"I’m not afraid to †¦.†A healthy degree of fear is not a bad thing. In fact, it’s best to have some fear and master it than to have had none at all.4. â€Å"Yes† (when you don’t mean it)It’s always better to say no than to dis miss someone with a ‘yes’ and then disrespect them by not delivering.5. â€Å"It’s important.†Convey the importance of a task or strategy in other ways. If you have to be obvious, you’ve already lost.6. â€Å"Are you upset?†This is almost as bad as â€Å"are you mad at me?† If you have to ask; you probably already know the answer.7. â€Å"Like†You’re not in middle school anymore. People will judge you for using â€Å"like† as sentence filler.8. â€Å"Literally†Same deal. Adverbs are best avoided anyway. And besides, this one is seriously overused.9. â€Å"I thought you were doing that.†Conveys confusion, that you don’t know what’s happening with your team. Also conveys that you’ll shirk any responsibility you can.10. â€Å"That’s impossible.†Might as well admit to being a quitter. Don’t shut down and limit your coworkers (or yourself) from coming up with creat ive solutions.11. â€Å"You misunderstood.†Don’t put the blame immediately on the other person. Try to find a better way to explain your original intent or meaning that doesn’t shirk responsibility for communication.12. â€Å"Sorry I was late†Just don’t be late. Respect your time and others’ time. Period. If you were really sorry, you wouldn’t have been late.13. â€Å"Because I’m in charge†You’ll just be resented for being heavy-footed. Convince people to follow your lead by example and by earning their regard.14. â€Å"Sorry†If you did something worthy of an apology; just fix it. Sorry isn’t enough. And if you’re just apologizing willy-nilly for anything and everything- stop. It makes you look weak an under-confident.15. â€Å"I’m bored.†You’re not bored. You’re boring. Show a little initiative and find something to do.16. â€Å"I’m busy.†Even if youà ¢â‚¬â„¢re too swamped to listen or to help out, find a better way to communicate this without sounding so self-centered.17. â€Å"Well I†¦.†Don’t one-up people. They hate it. A conversation isn’t just an opportunity to tell everyone how much better your stories are than theirs. Try listening for once. You’ll get your turn to shine.18. â€Å"That wasn’t my fault.†Even if it wasn’t. You look like a sell-out. Concentrate on how to fix the problem, not whose fault it is.19. â€Å"I can’t do all of this by myself.†Sure you can! And if you can’t, be sure it’s for the right reasons- not just that you’re feeling lazy. Asking for help in the right circumstances is always okay.20. GossipThat’s something that you need to leave in school. Professionals focus on work and more constructive social interactions.21. â€Å"Details, details.†This comment is flip and makes you look lazy and inattentiv e. Details are crucial.22. â€Å"I was just doing what I was told.†This is just trying to blame your superiors instead of your co-workers and it will almost never end well.23. â€Å"I have a brilliant plan.†Plans are one thing; execution is another. Execute your plan, then call it brilliant.24. â€Å"I’ll do that later.†Sorry. True professionals don’t procrastinate. Clear your to-do list as early and as often as you can.25. â€Å"I know better.†Even if you do, there is no reason to condescend. You’ll look like a jerk and an unprofessional one at that.26. Speak at an appropriate volume and enunciate your words. If no one can understand you, you’ll never get anywhere.27. â€Å"Wow that chick/dude is †¦Ã¢â‚¬ This is an office, not a club. Keep your outside-work observations to yourself.28. â€Å"That’s not going to happen.†There are ways to refuse or give a ‘no’ without being a condescending blowh ard. And without getting people to root against you.29. â€Å"I quit† (or â€Å"I’m done†)Spare us the drama. Prove that you can keep it cool- even when actually quitting.30. Even if you’re shy, you must speak up now and then. Otherwise people will forget you exist or they’ll make up a story to fill in the blanks. You’re much better off being open and up front.30 Phrases Unprofessional People Can’t Stop Saying At Work

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Key Concepts in Conversation Analysis

Key Concepts in Conversation Analysis Though a man succeeds, he should not (as is frequently the case) engross the whole talk to himself; for that destroys the very essence of conversation, which is talking together .(William Cowper, On Conversation, 1756) In recent years, the related fields of discourse analysis and conversation analysis have deepened our understanding of the ways in which language is used in everyday life. Research in these fields has also widened the focus of other disciplines, including rhetoric and composition studies. To acquaint you with these fresh approaches to language study, weve put together a list of 15 key concepts related to the ways we talk. All of them are explained and illustrated in our Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms, where youll find a name for . . . the assumption that participants in a conversation normally attempt to be informative, truthful, relevant, and clear: cooperative principlethe manner in which an orderly conversation normally takes place: turn-takinga type of turn-taking in which the second utterance (for example, Yes, please) depends on the first (Would you like some coffee?): adjacency paira noise, gesture, word, or expression used by a listener to indicate that he or she is paying attention to a speaker: back-channel signala face-to-face interaction in which one speaker talks at the same time as another speaker to show an interest in the conversation: cooperative overlapspeech that repeats, in whole or in part, what has just been said by another speaker: echo utterancea speech act that expresses concern for others and minimizes threats to self-esteem: politeness strategiesthe conversational convention of casting an imperative statement in question or declarative form (such as Would you pass me the potatoes?) to co mmunicate a request without causing offense: whimperative a particle (such as oh, well, you know, and I mean) thats used in conversation to make speech more coherent but that generally adds little meaning: discourse markera filler word (such as um) or a cue phrase (lets see) used to mark a hesitation in speech: editing termthe process by which a speaker recognizes a speech error and repeats what has been said with some sort of correction: repairthe interactive process by which speakers and listeners work together to ensure that messages are understood as intended: conversational groundingmeaning thats implied by a speaker but not explicitly expressed: conversational implicaturethe small talk that often passes for conversation at social gatherings: phatic communicationa style of public discourse that simulates intimacy by adopting features of informal, conversational language: conversationalization Youll find examples and explanations of these and over 1,500 other language-related expressions in our ever-expanding Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms. Classic Essays on Conversation While conversation has only recently become an object of academic study, our conversational habits and quirks have long been of interest to essayists. (Not surprising if we accept the notion that the essay itself may be regarded as a conversation between writer and reader.) To take part in this ongoing conversation about conversation, follow the links to these eight classic essays. The Musical Instruments of Conversation, by Joseph Addison (1710) I must not here omit the bagpipe species, that will entertain you from morning to night with the repetition of a few notes which are played over and over, with the perpetual humming of a drone running underneath them. These are your dull, heavy, tedious, story-tellers, the load and burden of conversations. Of Conversation: An Apology, by H.G. Wells (1901) These conversationalists say the most shallow and needless of things, impart aimless information, simulate interest they do not feel, and generally impugn their claim to be considered reasonable creatures. . . . This pitiful necessity we are under, upon social occasions, to say something- however inconsequent- is, I am assured, the very degradation of speech. Hints Toward an Essay on Conversation, by Jonathan Swift (1713) This degeneracy of conversation, with the pernicious consequences thereof upon our humours and dispositions, hath been owing, among other causes, to the custom arisen, for sometime past, of excluding women from any share in our society, further than in parties at play, or dancing, or in the pursuit of an amour. Conversation, by Samuel Johnson (1752) No style of conversation is more extensively acceptable than the narrative. He who has stored his memory with slight anecdotes, private incidents, and personal peculiarities, seldom fails to find his audience favourable. On Conversation, by William Cowper (1756) We should try to keep up conversation like a ball bandied to and fro from one to the other, rather than seize it all to ourselves, and drive it before us like a football. Childs Talk, by Robert Lynd (1922) Ones ordinary conversation seems so far beneath the level of a small child. To say to it, What wonderful weather weve been having! would seem an outrage. The child would merely stare. Talking About Our Troubles, by Mark Rutherford (1901) [A]s a rule, we should be very careful for our own sake not to speak much about what distresses us. Expression is apt to carry with it exaggeration, and this exaggerated form becomes henceforth that under which we represent our miseries to ourselves, so that they are thereby increased. Disintroductions by Ambrose Bierce (1902) [W]hat I am affirming is the horror of the characteristic American custom of promiscuous, unsought and unauthorized introductions. You incautiously meet your friend Smith in the street; if you had been prudent you would have remained indoors. Your helplessness makes you desperate and you plunge into conversation with him, knowing entirely well the disaster that is in cold storage for you. These essays on conversation can be found in our large collection of Classic British and American Essays and Speeches.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Annotated Bibliography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 23

Annotated Bibliography - Essay Example She emphasizes that the interpretation of violence in films can take multidimensional interpretation methods. In a case of the photo, Kony Make Him Famous 2012 it is evident that violence in films have the ability to stimulate the viewers since the violence contains both repulsive and sympathetic elements. Jeffrey Cohen argues that the monster theorists in formulating the symbolic expression theories regarding cultural uneasiness put the freaks, demons, fiends, and beastly creatures into consideration. Cultural uneasiness contributes to social pervasion and shapes a society’s collective behavior. In analyzing the Kony Make Him Famous 2012 photo, it is important to note that, Kony, the rebel leader is considered a beast, monster, and a social horror to the people of northern Uganda. People allover the world regard the man as heartless and according to monster theorist, he is a main source of cultural uneasiness. According to these theorists, Kony as a source of Cultural uneasiness, contributes to social pervasion and shapes a society’s collective behavior. The author illustrates how the society can influence the life of an individual. Children social up bringing determines their future life. The social environment in which a child is raise on determines the social life of that child. In Uganda Joseph Kony’s Lord’s Resistance Army militant group, affects the lives of many children in that region. Many children are force to join the illegal militia groups thus preventing them from enrolling in schools. Life in the war torn society has created children, men, and women to be animals. Young boys are taught not to cry when hurt no matter the pain they undergo. According to the militia when a cry he looks sissy. The society teaches boys how to take pain is a badge of courage and honor. This is in preparation for their future life where boys are not supposed to let their emotion out in public. The

Friday, October 18, 2019

Just Between You, Me, and My 622 BFFs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Just Between You, Me, and My 622 BFFs - Essay Example The social media impacts a lot of the children’s development. The author of the essay illustrates this very vividly. At the beginning of her article, Orenstein addresses the case of a fourteen-year-old teen by the name Erin. The teen confesses that she began engaging herself in online activities since she was in third grade. This brings out the fact of how early the children get exposed to the internet and the social media. The early exposure to the Internet makes them adopt new behaviors and lifestyles that may be unhealthy. For instance, Orenstein comments on how Erin and three of her friends shunned a healthy meal prepared by her mother, for a bucket of shamrock-shaped, green frosted sugar cookies bought at the grocery store. By so doing, the author tries to bring to the audience the effect of continued exposure to the internet on the children. What their mother thinks is important for them may not match their knowledge gained from the internet. It is unfortunate that they may prefer taking what the internet advertises. In this case, the sugar cookies sounded so popular to them since they were bought during the celebrations of Saint Patrick’s Day. This can be attributed to the fact that the four teens had been online from as early as age seven or eight. The author uses the three teens to illustrate how the children in the present era are so much attached to the mobile devices, ensuring they have internet everywhere and at all times. She notes that Erin and her three friends each owned an iPod touch, used computers daily.

Theoretical concepts of Risk Management in relation to projects Coursework

Theoretical concepts of Risk Management in relation to projects - Coursework Example Thus, the study is focused on presenting a view on risk management. Objectives of the Study The risk management is necessary to be able to survive and plan the different problems and trials facing the organisations. The study is aimed to review the theoretical concepts of risk management specifically related to projects and practical implementation of strategies, plans and procedures. In addition, relevant corporate governance aspects of organisations are also included. Included in the specific topics covered in the research are the key challenges and applications in risk management, risks associated in research and development, risks in new product development, change management, technology transfer, and system integration of technology and the manpower. The needs for team working skills appropriate to risk management and the methods for formulating risk management strategies such as project risk models, migration, and contingency plans for appropriate action. Background of the Stud y Risk is the â€Å"combination of the probability of an event and the consequences which can either be beneficial or detrimental to the organisation or particular project. Due to the implications of the risks involved, the need to prepare for the risks is essential (Institute of Risk Management, 2002, p.2). Risks are inevitable in any type of activities, projects or organisational operation, thus, methods and techniques in recognising, resolving and working the risk as opportunities and chances of growth and excellence are being established (Loosemore and Raftery, 2006, p.1). One example of risks considered is in the safety field wherein the main concentration is the preparation for the negative risks to be able to ensure safety (Institute of Risk Management, 2002, p.2). The risks can affect different aspects of an organisation or project including physical, monetary, cultural, and social dimensions (Loosemore and Raftery, 2006, p.1). In addition to the complex effects of risk tha t serves as stimulus for action undertaken by organisations, risk can either serve as threat or opportunity which lead to essential benefits such as exploits more opportunities, enables trade-offs, increases the chances of success, sustains creative exploration and innovation, increases efficiency, and promotes motivation within teams (Hillson, 2009, p.9). There are different types of key risks that can affect risk management. These can be classified into the external and internal factors that are categorised as financial risks, strategic risks, operational risks and hazard risks. External financial risks are composed of factors related to interest rates, foreign exchange, and credit. External strategic risks include competition, customer or stakeholder changes, industry changes, customer or stakeholder demand, and M & A integration, which is also an internally driven risk. External operational risks include factor such as regulations, culture, board composition, and the recruitment and supply chain which are also considered as internally driven risk factors. Contracts, natural events, suppliers, and factors related to the environment are classified as the externally driven hazard risks. Other types of external hazard risks are the public access, employees, properties, product and services which are also classified as internally

BUSINESS LAW Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

BUSINESS LAW - Essay Example Sole proprietorship This form of business organization is one that is organized under the management of an individual. The organization only depends on the contribution of the individual. The setting of this particular organization is based on contribution and profit sharing by an individual. However, this form of business setting can have support from family members or sponsors which do not reflect on the formal participation in the creation of the business entity. According to Ray (2001) sole proprietorship is a creation of a decision making process by one person. He further points out that, this form of business organization survival does not depend on contributions from donors or business partners. Additionally, a sole proprietor may use a business name apart from his legal name to represent his business entity. Ray (2001) points out that the sole proprietor owns all the assets in the business. In describing the formation and operation of a sole proprietorship, Pettet (2005) says that it is only more that buying and selling of services and goods. He further points out that the description of the activities in the business is automatically shaped by the owner’s activities. In this business form, taxation is only done on the business as the source of income for the owner. The owner is not further taxed as an individual. Additionally, the location of a sole proprietor business is decided by the owner and it is not dictated by any law. Advantages (Besley & Brigham, 2008) There are few legal formalities that are involved in its creation There is no profit sharing as the entire profit generated is taken by the proprietor The business entity can benefit from contributions by family members and relatives The capital required for the creation of a sole proprietorship is minimum compared to the amount required for the creation of other business entities. Operating challenges are minimized since no complex record keeping systems are required The unlimited liabi lity status of the owner attracts creditors Disadvantages (Besley & Brigham, 2008) The proprietor incurs all the loss that may be generated by the organization The exposure of this form of business to sponsors is minimized The proprietor is the sole contributor of the capital required The continuity of this form of business entity is made unpredictable. For instance, if the proprietor dies the business may be dissolved There is a minimized exposure to talent and expertise General partnerships This form of business is based on skill and resources contribution by two or more people (Pettet, 2005). Partnerships are legally registered as business creation by two or more people. The contribution by each partner should be voluntary and the contribution by each partner is legally recorded. Such business entities are legally bound by rules and regulation created by governments. The contribution of resources and capital may vary in terms of quantity but must be on agreeable terms and compens ation conditions. The contribution by a partner dictates the sharing profit ratio: the highest contributor of capital and resources get a greater share of the profit. Name of partners, loss and profit sharing ratio, name of partnership, capital of the business of the entity and the provisions in settling differences are the constitution of the legal provisions of general partnerships

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Research on a recent (2012-2013) malware attack Paper

On a recent (2012-2013) malware attack - Research Paper Example This paper seeks to give an in-depth analysis of the Stuxnex virus. Stuxnet is a very complex computer virus, which was observed to be specifically designed for industrial appliances attack. In this regard, it would affect the operation of the industrial devices and could lead to failure of the system. According to Ricks (2012), Stuxnet virus was designed and deployed by American and Israel intelligence in a bid to bring down the Iranian nuclear plant. The designing of the Stuxnet virus dates back from the time George W. Bush was the American president, and was accelerated to its completion under Obama’s first term as the American president (Sanger, 2012). The joint project between the American and the Israel intelligence personnel was implemented under the code â€Å"Olympic games.† The main target was the Iranian military-industrial complex in a bid to hamper its operations, thus making them incapable on continuing with their development on nuclear weapons (Sanger, n.d.). The first deployment was done in 2008 and 2009, and the target s were Natanz nuclear enrichment. At first, it was thought the failure in the operations of the plant was due to incompetence of the Iranian officials mandated to monitor it. For security reasons, computers  for  monitoring and controlling the operation of the plant were not connected to the internet. The virus was to be spread using removable devices. When the devices were plugged into the computers, the virus software would record the operations of the Centrifuges, after which it would interfere with the normal operations of the centrifuges; thus, bringing down the plant. This was the only route through which the virus could be introduced to the nuclear plant as the American and Israel intelligence officials did not have access to the plant; workers, who include engineers and maintenance personnel, were used to infect the plant with the virus through

Make up your own topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Make up your own topic - Essay Example In this regard, the article would be critiqued focusing on logical presentation of contentions in the most balanced and objective way. The essay hereby aims to proffer the effectiveness of the author’s discourse using appropriate critical analysis techniques, as required. To analyze the essay in a logical form, one needs to clearly set the meaning of a critical analysis. One’s academic background and learning from various modules on critical thinking recognizes the involvement of rational and logical thinking skills in closely evaluating the effectiveness of a discourse to determine if the specified objective is achieved. Using these explanations, the article initially started with an introductory paragraph that provided some background information on the author’s rationale for pursuing music as an academic major. However, introductory paragraphs need to establish the general overview of the discourse and stipulate the author’s aim and thesis statement as well. In this article, the introductory paragraph did not contain the author’s purpose nor the thesis statement, as required; thereby failing to comply with the general requirement of an academic essay. The author proceeded with a narrative discourse of how people wrongly perceived music courses, in general. While indicating that the perceptions are false, the author did not support the statement but instead, diverted the discussion to presenting some approach to seek respite from the demands of the course. Further, the structure and arguments that are supposed to prove that music is not an easier path was not effectively and logically presented. For example, the paragraph that is supposed to discuss that long hours of practice cut homework time in core and other courses did not support this contention in any way; but instead, opted to discuss the challenges posed by taking a diction course for vocal performance majors. The general arguments that

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Research on a recent (2012-2013) malware attack Paper

On a recent (2012-2013) malware attack - Research Paper Example This paper seeks to give an in-depth analysis of the Stuxnex virus. Stuxnet is a very complex computer virus, which was observed to be specifically designed for industrial appliances attack. In this regard, it would affect the operation of the industrial devices and could lead to failure of the system. According to Ricks (2012), Stuxnet virus was designed and deployed by American and Israel intelligence in a bid to bring down the Iranian nuclear plant. The designing of the Stuxnet virus dates back from the time George W. Bush was the American president, and was accelerated to its completion under Obama’s first term as the American president (Sanger, 2012). The joint project between the American and the Israel intelligence personnel was implemented under the code â€Å"Olympic games.† The main target was the Iranian military-industrial complex in a bid to hamper its operations, thus making them incapable on continuing with their development on nuclear weapons (Sanger, n.d.). The first deployment was done in 2008 and 2009, and the target s were Natanz nuclear enrichment. At first, it was thought the failure in the operations of the plant was due to incompetence of the Iranian officials mandated to monitor it. For security reasons, computers  for  monitoring and controlling the operation of the plant were not connected to the internet. The virus was to be spread using removable devices. When the devices were plugged into the computers, the virus software would record the operations of the Centrifuges, after which it would interfere with the normal operations of the centrifuges; thus, bringing down the plant. This was the only route through which the virus could be introduced to the nuclear plant as the American and Israel intelligence officials did not have access to the plant; workers, who include engineers and maintenance personnel, were used to infect the plant with the virus through

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Appiled Arts Essay Example for Free

Appiled Arts Essay Although we now tend to refer to the various crafts according to the materials used to construct them-clay, glass, wood, fiber, and metal-it was once common to think of crafts in terms of function, which led to their being known as the applied arts. Approaching crafts from the point of view of function, we can divide them into simple categories: containers, shelters and supports. There is no way around the fact that containers, shelters, and supports must be functional. The applied arts are thus bound by the laws of physics, which pertain to both the materials used in their making and the substances and things to be contained, supported, and sheltered. These laws are universal in their application, regardless of cultural beliefs, geography, or climate. If a pot has no bottom or has large openings in its sides, it could hardly be considered a container in any traditional sense. Since the laws of physics, not some arbitrary decision, have determined the general form of applied-art objects, they follow basic patterns, so much so that functional forms can vary only within certain limits. Buildings without roofs, for example, are unusual because they depart from the norm. However, not all functional objects are exactly alike; that is why we recognize a Shang Dynasty vase as being different from an Inca vase. What varies is not the basic form but the incidental details that do not obstruct the objects primary function. ?Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg. In other words, the demands of the laws of physics, not the sculptors aesthetic intentions, placed the ball there. That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze). Even though the fine arts in the twentieth century often treat materials in new ways, the basic difference in attitude of artists in relation to their materials in the fine arts and the applied arts remains relatively constant. It would therefore not be too great an exaggeration to say that practitioners of the fine arts work to overcome the limitations of their materials, whereas those engaged in the applied arts work in concert with their materials.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Salafi Movement In Global Context Theology Religion Essay

The Salafi Movement In Global Context Theology Religion Essay Salafism (al-Salafiyyah) is a contemporary Islamic global movement, which is concerned with a search for the pure teachings of Islam as prescribed in the Quran and the Prophet Muhammads tradition (sunnah) by rejecting any external influences and human involvement in the interpretation of religious texts. The proponents of Salafism define themselves to be the inheritors of the pre-modern Ahl al-Hadits (people of the Prophet tradition). In their view, this school of thought was the only group that remained faithful to the pure teachings of Islam as prescribed in the Quran and the Sunnah so that it was considered the saved sect. They base their claim on a hadith (the Prophet Muhammad sayings) that the Prophet Muhammad was reported to have said that there would always be a group of his people who remained committed to the truth, whom the Salafis identify as the Ahl al-Hadith (Duderija, 2011). By claiming to be the inheritors of the Ahl al-Hadith and followers of its footsteps, the propon ents of contemporary Salafi movement attempt to assert that they have privilege and take pride to be the guardians of the pure Islam in modern period. The proponents of contemporary Salafism identify themselves, and are proud to be, as salafi (plural: salafiyyin), the followers of al-salaf al-shalih(the righteous ancestors). For them, the term salaf refers to the first three Muslim generations in the early Islam, who were considered as the best Islamic generations as they were directly guided by the Prophet Muhammad and his Companions. This self-ascription is based on their belief that their understanding and practicing Islam is in complete accordance with the footsteps and methodology of the salaf (manhaj al-salaf). Abdullah ibn Baz, one of the main Salafi authorities, said that Salafi ideology is derived from the Quran, Sunnah and Consensus (ijma`) which govern the method of acquiring din [religion] and understanding the Quran and Sunnah according to the principles agreed upon by the righteous predecessors (salaf) (Cited in Duderija, 2011:54). Due to this strong emphasis on the Salaf as the only model of understanding and practic ing Islam, Salafism can be said as a movement of return to the forefather (Marshallsay, 2004). Major Authorities of the Contemporary Salafi Movement Within contemporary Salafi movement, the most influential proponents are the Middle Eastern Muslim scholars with Saudi nationality or Saudi-educated, university educated, many gained PhDs in Islamic sciences from Saudi universities. These include Nashir al-Din al-Albani (d.1999), Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz (d. 1999), Muhammad ibn Shalih al-Uthaymin (d. 2001), Muqbil ibn Hadi al-Wadii (d. 2001), Rabi ibn Hadi al-Madkhali (b. 1931), Yahya al-Hajuri, and Shalih al-Fawzan. The dominance of Saudi Arabian or Saudi-educated religious scholars (ulama) asserts the centrality of Saudi Arabia as the birth of modern Salafism. As the main representative of the Salafi movement, these ulama become major references that Salafi leaders and ordinary followers in the Muslim world turn to for guidance and advice in their lives. Outside the Middle East, leading personalities of Salafism in Western countries such as Jamal Zarabozo and Bilal Philips (Duderija, 2011) mostly become the mouthpiece of these Middle East authorities, translating their Salafi messages for the Western Salafi followers. The same is true for the leaders of the Salafi movement in Indonesia. Most of them went to Saudi and Yemen universities or Islamic religious learning institutions (mahad) to study Islamic knowledge. These include Abu Nida, Ahmad Faiz, Yusuf Baisa, Jafar Umar Thalib, Ayip Syafrudin, Luqman Baabduh and Muhammad Umar Sewed (Hasan, 2007; 2009). Compared to their locally trained Salafi proponents, these Middle East graduates commonly enjoy more authority and recognition from their followers due to their highly-esteemed learning in Mecca or Medinah, two holy cities of Islam. Yet, all of these Salafi exponents make the Saudi and Yemeni Salafi authorities as major, and to some extent, the only references in learning and preachi ng Salafi ideas among Indonesian Muslims. The Middle East Salafi authorities write treatises on Salafi ideas exclusively in Arabic. But, this is not a major barrier for Salafi followers from non-Arabic speaking countries to understand the messages of these Salafi ulama. The Salafi followers and sympathizers have attempted to translate the works of these Salafi ulama into local languages. For this purpose, in Western countries, they have established publishing houses, including Tarbiyyah Publications in Toronto, Invitation to Islam and Al-Khilafat Publications in London, and Salafi Publications and Maktabah Darussalam in Birmingham. Mobilizing the information and communication technologies, they have created websites such as www.salafipublications.com, www.tarbiyyahbookstore.com, http://sunna.com, www.salaf.com, and www.fatwa-online.com. Individual Salafi authorities websites have been also established by the Salafi supporters, such as www.binbaz.com (on the works of Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz), www.rabee.net (on the works of Rabi i bn Hadi al-Madkhali), and www.ibnothaimeen.com (on the works of Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymin) (Duderija, 2011). The Puzzle of the Origin and Meaning of Salafism For decades, there has been conviction among Western and Western-educated scholars that history of Salafism is a history of Islamic modernism; that Salafi ideas are regarded as similar to those of Islamic modernist movement; and the Salafis are representatives of Muslim modernist. It is believed that Salafism dates back to the 19th Islamic modernism, which was associated with Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (d. 1897), Muhammad Abduh (d. 1905), and Rashid Ridha (d. 1935), whose principles and ideas include rejection of taqlid (blind following), promotion of ijtihad (independent interpretation), and support of progress and rationality in its responses to the decline of the Muslim world. As Lauziere (2010) identifies, this conception can be seen in the standard academic works of Islamic thought such as Brills Encyclopedia of Islam, Malcolm Kerrs Islamic Reform (1966), M. A. Zaki Badawis The Reformers of Egypt (1978), and Daniel Browns Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought (1996). Some recent studies by scholars of contemporary Islam, such as Ali Hassan Zaidi (2006) and Dumber and Tayob (2011), also connect Salafi orientations with Muslim reformists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, this conception is problematic in some respects. First, there is no convincing evidence to the claim of the connection among Salafism, al-Afghani, and Abduh. According to Lauziere (2010), there are no primary sources including al-Urwat al-Wuthqa, a flagship journal of al-Afghani and Abduh, that substantially prove the claim that al-Afghani and Abduh coined the term Salafism and used it to identify themselves and their reform movement in the 19th century. It is true that Abduh mentioned the term al-Salafiyyin (the Salafis) in Al-Manar (Al-Manar 5, 1902 cited in Lauziere 2010) to designate Sunni Muslims who were against Ashariyyah, a 10th century school of speculative Islamic theology,  [1]  in terms of theological issues based on their strict adherence to the creed of the forefathers (Lauziere, 2010). But, Abduh clearly did not claim to be a Salafi nor identified his followers as Salafis. He simply referred al-Salafiyyin in the context of theological debates as Sunni Musl ims who differed from Asharites based on their strict adherence to aqidat al-salaf (the creed of the forefather) (Lauziere, 2010). Moreover, Rasyid Ridha, one of Muhammad Abduhs main disciples, recognized the fundamental differences between Salafism and Islamic modernist school, which his mentor promoted. According to Ridha, following the Salafi creed did not necessarily make one committed to Islamic modernist school. During his time, Ridha identified Salafism as Wahhabism to which he called al-Wahhabiyyah al-Salafiyyah. Later, in 1928 he and some of his disciples declared their passage to becoming Salafis not only with respect to Islamic theology but also in fiqh or Islamic jurisprudence (Lauziere, 2010). Second, the unconfirmed claim of ideological connection between contemporary Salafism and the early 20th century Islamic modernism can be seen in the issue of how each defines the term Salaf. While the two movements shared the idea of the importance of the pious ancestors, they differ in the issue of to what extent the Salaf is defined and how it should be modelled. The proponents of Islamic modernism conceived that the term Salaf includes virtually the Muslim scholars of all schools of thought in the medieval period whose success and achievements should be contextually propagated and imitated within modern Muslim contexts. The early 20th century Salafism understood the Salaf as Muslim scholars in religious science as well as in secular science of the golden age of Islam in the medieval period that should be contextually followed. In contrast, the proponents of contemporary Salafism restrict the Salaf to the first three generations in the early Islam, namely the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (al-shahabat), those after them (al-tabiin) and the next generation after them (atba`u al-tabiin). They also include religious scholars (ulama`) in the first and second centuries of Islam who were considered to adhere to the way of these first three Muslim generations, particularly Ahmad bin Hanbal and the followers of his textual school. These Salaf generations and Salafi ulama` were considered rightly guided forefathers and, hence, role models to whom Muslims are obliged to follow their ways in any circumstances. In addition, when the proponents of contemporary Salafism speak about the Salaf, they use it in its narrow religious sense. Practically, they exclude, show suspicion and hostility towards social, cultural and scientific heritage of the Muslim forefathers. In their view, the perfect method of modelling the S alaf in the contemporary Muslim societies is preserving and imitating their footsteps without contextualizing them in the present contexts. Third, the issue of the unconfirmed ideological connection between Salafism and the late 19th century Islamic modernism can be discerned in differences between them with respect to methodology and objectives. In response to the decline of the Islamic world, the Islamic modernism of al-Aghani and Abduh was committed to islah (reform) in Muslim society through promotion of itidal (moderation and balance) by which Muslims were expected to conduct conciliation between Islam and Western civilization. It encouraged the appreciation and adoption of social, political and scientific achievements of Western civilization and at the same rooted firmly in Islamic principles and civilization. In other words, al-Afghani and Abduhs Islamic modernism was a moderate approach to Islam and Western civilization in that it was able to balance between revelation and reason, and between strict Islamic conservatism and blind following of the West (Lauziere, 2010). Contemporary Salafism, in contrast, aims to revive the golden age of Islam by adhering strictly to the ways of the first three Muslim generations in the early Islam understood and practiced Islam to protect its purity from forbidden religious innovation. From this perspective, the making of the Salaf as a perfect model requires strict applying the Salaf method in social and cultural vacuum, without contextualizing their ideas and practices within present contexts of the Muslim world. Subsequently, this movement regards revealed texts as the only primary sources so that its proponents tend to be anti-rationalistic approach to revelation. The proponents of contemporary Salafism are also suspicious of anything not textually written in the scripture, taught or done by the Prophet Muhammad, his companions and religious scholars adhered to their ways. Conservatism, or even ultra conservatism, is highly represented in contemporary Salafi movement. As a result, there is no adequate evidence to claim ideological connection between the late 19th and early 20th centurys Islamic modernism and the contemporary Salafi movement. There is no support that Al-Afghani and Abduh proclaimed they were Salafis or exponents of the Salafi movement or their ideas were in accordance with contemporary Salafism. The modernist conception of Salafism substantially differs from the contemporary Salafisms understanding of the same term. Within contemporary Salafi movement, salafism is conceived first and foremost as label by Sunni purist-literalist-traditionalists to designate their particular approach to Islam. Conceptual History of Salafism Undoubtedly, the uncertainty of the origin and meaning of Salafism within modern scholarship has caused the substance of Salafism remain puzzling. Fortunately, a recent study by Henri Lauziere (2010) is helpful in solving this puzzle and gaining relative certainty in the issues of the origin and meaning of Salafism. He argues that the puzzle of the meaning and origins of Salafism is attributable to the faulty scholarship and the fact that there is little scholarly attention to the examination of the history of knowledge production of Salafism (Lauziere, 2010:369). The First Use of the Term Salafism Historically speaking, Salafism as a religious orientation is not purely a modern phenomenon. Rather, it rooted in the Islamic scholarship in pre-modern history of Islam. The early use of the term Salafism (Salafiyyah) as an approach to religious texts is found in a number of religious scholars works in the medieval period. For example, Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1238) writes in his al-Fatawa al-Kubra: As for the Salafiyya it is as [Hamd ibn Muhammad] al-Khattabi and Abu Bakr al-Khatib [al-Bagdadi] and other have stated: The way of the Salaf is to interpret literally the Quran verses and hadiths that relate to the Divine attributes (ijra ayat al-sifat wa ahadits al-sifat ala zahiriha), and without indicating modality and without attributing to Him anthropomorphic qualities. So that one is not to state that the meaning of hand is power or that of hearing is knowledge (Cited in Haykel, 2009:38). However, as Haykel (2009) and Dumbe Tayob (2011) suggest, the historical precedent of the Salafi orientations even dates back earlier to the 9th century theological and juridical debates between the Ahl al-Ray (people of opinion), which was associated with the Mutazilah,  [2]  and Ahl al-Hadith (people of the Prophet Muhammads tradition), which was related to Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855), the inspirer of the Hanbali school of law (Hanbaliyyah).  [3]  Particularly, the early use of the term Salaf and its derivatives in this period can be traced back to the Ahl al Hadits. It is reported that Ibn Hanbal said: It has been transmitted from more than one of our ancestors (salafina) that they said the Quran is the speech of God and is uncreated, and this is what I endorse. I do not engage in speculative theology and I hold that there is nothing to be said other than what is in Gods Book (Quran), the traditions of His messenger or those of his companions and their followers- may God have mercy on them. It is not praiseworthy to engage in theological discussion in matters not contained therein (Cited in Haykel, 2009:38). These statements not only refer to the early use of the terms Salaf and Salafism within Islamic scholarship, but also points out the way of thinking that the early Salafis advocated in regard to theological issues such as the nature of the Quran as Gods messages revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. With respect to the approach to the interpretation of religious texts, the Ahl al-Ra`y represented Muslims scholars who sought explanations from personal opinions and borrowings from other cultures and intellectual traditions, while the Ahl al-Hadits sufficed themselves with literal meanings of the texts and tradition of the Prophet and his companions believed as pure and original sources of Islam. Another corresponding term, madhhab al-salaf (the school of forefathers), is found in the literature of Muslim scholars of medieval period. As Lauziere (2010:372) suggests, written sources also indicate that medieval Muslims scholars used this term primarily in the theological debates within early schools of theology in Islam. The notion of madhhab al-salaf was used to designate those who hold a theological purity in a time when early Muslims were not faced yet with speculative theology (ilm al-kalam) resulted from the encounter of Islam and other world civilizations. The proponents of madhhab al-salaf showed hostility towards Islamic speculative theology (ilm al-kalam) which was influenced by Greek inspiration and rationalism such ilm al-mantiq (syllogistic logic) and falsafah (philosophy). Contrary to Islamic theologians (mutakalimin) such as Mutazilis and Asharites, the people of the madhhab al-salaf distanced themselves from intellectualizing the divine issues, such as al asma` w al sifat (the divine names and attributes). However, the word Salafi or Salafism was not commonly used by medieval purist Muslims to refer to themselves and their approach to Islam. Instead, the common epithets used to refer to the purists at the period were not derived from the word salaf, but rather from the terms associated with the Prophet Muhammads tradition, such as Ahl al-Sunnah (people of the prophetic tradition), Ahl al-Hadist (people of prophetic sayings and sayings) or al-Atsari (the follower of the prophetic report) (Lauziere, 2010:373). The Origin of the Confusion of Salafism: Louis Massignon and the Salafyah Review A recent study by Lauziere (2010) revealed the origin of the confusion between Salafism and Islamic modernism in scholarly literature. He argues that puzzle of Salafism lies in the fact Massignon and scholars who quoted him were not aware of the complex development of the Salafi epithets within Muslim scholars in the Middle East. They simply relied on al-Majallah al-Salafiyyah, a monthly reformist journal published by Salafiyya Bookstore in Egypt -whose key role in Salafi discourses will be examined in the following section- that reached overseas including Paris. Being established in 1917, the journal was edited by Abd al-Fattah Qatlan and rendered by him into English as Salafyah Review. The journal was purported to serve as a marketing vehicle for reaching a wider readership of the Salafiyyah Bookstore. More importantly, the journal was created in the period in which the reform spirit overwhelmed the Salafiyyah Bookstore before the coming of the Saudi-Wahhabi influence on the type o f literature it published. So, in line with the reform spirit, the journal aimed to spread the achievements of the pious ancestors (al-salaf) in a wide range of scientific, cultural and intellectual fields. In line with this spirit, the content of the journal encompassed various themes such as literature, linguistics, and astronomy in addition to religious topics (Lauziere, 2010:379). It was through this journal that the term Salafism caught the attention of Western scholars (Lauziere, 2010). Louis Massignon, a well-known French orientalist and the major contributor to the leading journal Revue du monde musulman, subscribed to Arabic journals including al-Majallah al-Salafiyyah. When the first issue of the journal reached his journal office, Massignon provided explanation of the Majallah al-Salafiyyah to the readers of his journal. He said that the Salafiyyah was an intellectual movement that emerged in early 19th century India at the time of Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi (d. 1931) [and] Siddiq Hasan Khan (d. 1890), the founder of the Ahl-i Hadith movement, had later rehashed its ideas (Cited in Lauziere, 2010:380). Then, he added that from there, [the Salafiyyah] was spread by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Syaikh Abduh and established itself in Baghdad, Damascus, Cairo and even in the Maghrib and Java (Revue du monde musulman 34, 1916-18 in Lauziere, 2010:380). But, later M assignon abolished the connection of the Salafiyyah with the 19th century Indian movement and focused more on its link with al-Afghani and Abduh. Then, he associated Salafiyyah with a relatively transnational Islamic modernism in the 19th century, whose proponents were committed to reform in Islam and Muslim societies (Lauziere, 2010). However, Massignons claim of Salafism is problematic as it raised questions with respect to conceptual and historical foundations of Salafism he based on. It is not clear how he came to this claim though it is known that he studied Islam in Baghdad and made contacts with some reform-oriented Muslim scholars like Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi. Due to this, it can be said that Massignon misinterpreted the term Salafiyyah and inadequately made Salafism and Islamic modernism of al-Afghani and Abduh synonymous (Lauziere, 2010). Nevertheless, as Lauziere (2010:381) shows, some leading scholars welcomed Massignons definition of Salafism and even took its validity for granted despite its factual limitations. The famous The New World of Islam, published in 1921, repeated this misinterpretation when made reference to Salafiyyah. In 1922, the leading journal The Moslem World published by Hartford Seminary did the same when it translated an article of Massignon from the Revue du monde musulman. This is further misinterpreted by Henri Laoust, a scholar who spread Massignons ideas in French, when in his seminal article in 1932 defined Salafism based on Massignons conception. Even influential scholar Sir Hamilton Gibb took Massignons claim of Salafism for granted in his famous Modern Trends in Islam. Hence, it is through this intellectual transmission that the term Salafism with the sense of Islamic modernist movement was created within Western scholarly literature on Islam. The Evolution of Salafism If there is no connection with al-Afghani and Abduhs Islamic modernism of the late 19th century, who first used the Salafi label as understood today? And how was it defined? As Lauziere (2010) argues, to remedy this puzzle requires considering the origin and development of the term Salafism from the perspective of conceptual history. According to Lauziere (2010, the growing popularity of Salafi epithets as well as overlap between Salafism and Islamic modernism can be attributed to a key role played by the Salafiyah Bookstore (al-Maktabat al-Salafiyyah). It was established in 1909 in Cairo by Muhib al-Din al-Khatib (1886-1969), a Syrian activist, well-known figure in the Egyptian publishing business, and pupil of Salafis-cum-modernists ulama`, Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (d. 1914) and Tahir al-Jazairi (d. 1920). Al-Khatibs involvement in cultural and political affairs opened the opportunity to establish the bookstore aimed at spreading his interests in Islamic scholarship and reformist ideas under the label Salafiyyah (Salafism). The name Salafiyyah for the bookstore was inspired by al-Khatibs mentor, Tahir al-Jazairi, who had inclinations to the madhhab al-salaf (school of the forefathers) with respect to Islamic theology. But, it seemed that al-Khatib misinterpreted the term Salafiyyah or understood it in a broader sense than al-Jazairi meant (Lauziere, 2010). This is reflected in the way he and his partner, Abdul Fattah Qatlan (d. 1931), operated the Salafiyyah Bookstore, particularly in terms of the type of literature they published. Being motivated by desires to encourage educated Arab readers to rediscover the glory of their religious, social and cultural heritage for the advancement of their society, al-Khatib and Qatlan were not confined themselves in printing and selling books on the Salafi theology. Rather, they published works on progressive nature of Islams golden age as well as a wide range of issues not connected to religious reform. They used the Salafi epithets to refer virtually to any Islamic intellectual heritage in medieval period, not in a narrow sense of a particular school of theology. In addition to treatises on religion, the Salafiyyah Bookstore published works on Arabic literat ure, Arabic grammar, and work of medieval Muslim philosophers such al-Farabi (d.950) and Ibn Sina (d.1037). In short, the literature that the Salafiyyah Bookstore published and sold in the 1910s was in accordance with the spirit and concerns of Islamic modernism (Lauziere, 2010:378). The selection and publication of this type of literature suggest that al-Khatib and Qatlan attempted to revive the works of the great Muslim scholars and underline the Muslimss contribution to modernity in the West of modern age. Under the label Salafism, they sought to emphasize the compatibility between revelation and modernity as shown by the works of great and pious forefathers (Salaf) in the past by which Muslims in the modern age should model for the revival and advancement of the Islamic world. In turn, all this resulted in turning Salafiyyah into a common and popular term among producers and consumers of Arabic literature in the Middle East and other Muslim regions (Lauziere, 2010:382). More importantly, an impression built up that the Salafiyyah Bookstore intertwined the term Salafism with Islamic modernism projected to the revival of Arabs and Muslims in the modern period. The label Salafism it used was then considered as to represent the success and greatness of the Islami c past. The bookstore expanded the scope of the term Salafism beyond its initial theological meanings and gradually created the association between Salafism and the project of Islamic modernism (Lauziere, 2010:377). The later development of the Salafiyyah Bookstore, however, determined the association of Islamic modernism and Salafism and brought about decisive changes in the nature and development of Salafism after the establishment of the Saudi Kingdom in the early 1920s. The bookstore experienced a shift with respect to choices of works for publication. This began with the change in the choice of works for publication. In the early 1920s, al-Khatib and Qatlan began to print works that appeared contradictive to the progressive and rationalist ideas of the Islamic reform movement though they kept promoting Islamic modernism. For example, the Salafiyyah Bookstore published works of those who strongly opposed the secular and controversial works of Ali Abd al-Raziq and Taha Husayn. It also published anti-rationalist treatises by Hanbali and his school followers ordered by Saudis. This shift in the choice of publications was more clearly discernable in the establishment of the Saudi branch of the S alafiyyah Bookstore in Mecca in the late 1920 initiated by Qatlan in partnership with a Hijazi Muhammad Salih Nasif (d.1971). In 1928, to suit the local needs, this Saudi branch began to publish works on Ahmad ibn Hanbal and his supporters as well pro-Wahhabi books such a theological treatise by Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya (1292-1350), which was printed with the request and fund from Ibn Saud (d. 1932), the first monarch of Saudi Arabia (Lauziere, 2010:383). This shift within the Salafiyya Bookstores choice of publications, according to Lauziere (2010), should be seen in the context of political change in the Muslim world in the mid 1920s. The fall of the Ottoman Empire and the abolition of Islamic caliphate in the early 1920s brought about political and cultural turbulence within the Muslim world. At the same time, however, the rise of the Saudi Kingdom in Hejaz offered Muslim ummah (global Muslim community) a great hope of social and political renaissance in the Muslim world. Therefore, many Muslims intellectuals and religious scholars, including Rasyid Ridha, supported the young Saudi state and turned toward religious conservatism, particularly Wahhabism,  [4]  founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792), and endorsed as an official school of Islam and promoted by the state. Al-Khatib showed the same response to these circumstances. He opted to support the young Saudi state and showed respect to the Wahhabism and its propone nts. These religio-political stances influenced the activities of his Salafiyyah Bookstore. This was reflected in the change of choices of editing and publishing when it began to publish the Wahhabi treatises and pro-Saudi works. Although Lauziere missed to capture the complexity of social and political transformation in the Muslim world in the first quarter of twentieth century, his argument was sufficient to overcome to the puzzle of Salafism by making sense of the evolution of Salafism. By publishing pro-Wahhabi works to cater the religious and political needs of the Saudi elite and proponents of Wahhabism, the Salafiyyah Bookstore brought its commercial label Salafism closer to Wahhabism. Though the Cairo Salafiyyah Bookstore still published modernist themes, the popularization and commodification of the Salafi epithets by the Saudi branch of the Salafiyyah Bookstore had brought the Wahhabi religious orientation to the fore. The unfounded intellectual association between Salafism (Salafiyyah) and al-Afghani and Abduhs Islamic reform as well as the absence of the monopoly over Salafism as a marketing brand that al-Khatib and Qatlan might have opened opportunity to the proponents of the Wahhabi-oriented pur ist movement kept using Salafiyyah as the label of their publications ignoring any modernist agenda as initiated by the original Salafi Bookstore in Cairo (Lauziere, 2010). It can be added that given that they shared the strong reference to the pious forefather (al-salaf al-shalih) with respect to theological issues with the Salafiyyah Bookstore, at least in its early years of operation, the proponents of Wahhabism had no difficulties in taking the advantage of using Salafism as their label of spreading the purist ideas of Ibn al-Wahhab. Through these religious-political processes, consequently, the Salafi epithets experienced re-definition and counter-definitions. More importantly, this gradually created the impression that the term Salafism and Wahhabism of Saudi Arabia were synonymous. The opening of the Saudi-connected Salafiyyah bookstores outside Saudi Arabia, such as in Syria and Pakistan, enforced this impression (Lauziere, 2010). Undoubtedly, this evolution of Salafism explains the state of the contemporary development of the Salafi movement with Saudi Arabia as its major supporter. Due to the fact that it is a contemporary phenomenon that assigns the epistemological value to traditions, Adis Duderija (2007:2011) labels the proponents of this contemporary Salafism as Neo-Traditional Salafis. In its later development, in the 1960s Wahhabi-inspired Salafism encountered with religious-political ideas brought by the Islamic activists who fled from their ruling governments repression and persecution found Saudi Arabia safe haven. This has to do with the Saudi Arabias policy under King Faisal (d. 1975) to support Islamic solidarity in its attempts to oppose Egypts pan-Arabism promoted by President Jamal Abdel Nasser (d. 1970), which was regarded as a threat to the existence of the kingdom (Lacroix, 2010). Among these refugees were the members of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (the Muslim Brotherhood), a religious-political movement that first emerged in Egypt in 1928 and then spread to the Muslim world. The political aspects of the ideology of al-Ikhwan al Muslimun encountered with the puritanical ideas of Wahhabism (Wahhabiyyah) brought about an intellectual hybrid identified as al-Sahwa al-Islamiyya (th